The gall bladder is a small organ that plays an important role in the digestion process, due to the accumulation of bile and its release into the duodenal cavity. Diseases of the bile duct and bladder are found in people of all ages and especially affect women over the age of 50 years. All of them are accompanied by certain pain and a number of characteristic manifestations, according to which it is possible to suspect this particular disease.
Causes of pain
The gall bladder is an unpaired organ of the digestive tract, which is a hollow pear-shaped formation filled with bile. Its main role in the digestion process is to concentrate the bile produced by the liver, accumulate it, and at a certain point bring it into the intestinal lumen. Anatomically, an organ consists of a body and a neck connected by a duct to the small intestine. The walls of these formations consist of the mucous, muscle and serous layers.
The pathological process can affect any of the structures of the hepatobiliary system and lead to serious digestive and metabolic disorders in the body. The most common conditions are:
- Gallstone disease - diagnosed with detection of single and multiple calculi in the cystic cavity.
- Cholesterosis is an metabolic disease caused by malfunctions in the work of fat metabolism and deposition of cholesterol plaques on the mucous membranes, which leads to stagnation of the contents.
- Colic is a complication that occurs when a stone enters a common bile duct.
- Acute and chronic cholecystitis are inflammatory processes caused by the bacterial flora that occur against the background of stone disease and other pathologies. Acute cholecystitis is considered a life-threatening condition. It appears against the background of colic and requires surgical intervention.
- Dyskinesias - occur with weakened or unstable work of the muscle layer and sphincter, which provides a batch of bile into the duodenum. As a result of this, the cystic contents are retained in its cavity, enter the digestive tract in insufficient quantities and cannot provide a normal digestion process.
- Injuries - Isolated damage to the gallbladder is rare because this organ is protected by ribs. Usually combined with injuries of other abdominal organs
- Parasitic diseases are most common among children, but can also occur in adult women. Most often there are giardiasis, opisthorchiasis and fascioliasis.
- Tumors - distinguish between benign and malignant neoplasms of the bladder itself and its duct. Also, the bile can be affected by tumors of nearby organs, for example, with head cancer, the common bile duct is compressed by a growing tumor, which leads to stagnation of bile and the appearance of symptoms of cystic pathology.
These diseases are accompanied by dyspeptic symptoms and pain. It is important to carefully monitor your own condition, to note the nature of the pain, their localization and causes. Knowing this will help the doctor suspect a specific disease, examine the patient and make a final diagnosis.
More about gallbladder disease in this video.
For all pathologies of the gallbladder, a typical localization of pain is characteristic. Most often, it is localized under the right rib, less often in the epigastric or umbilical region. With chronic cholecystitis, there is an irradiation of pain in the right shoulder, arm, hand, shoulder blade, back. Concomitant pathology of the pancreas, resulting from a violation of the digestion of fats due to a lack of bile, is accompanied by the irradiation of pain in the left half of the abdomen, chest, left arm.
With the addition of pancreatitis, girdle soreness may be noted, reminding patients of a "tight corset or belt." With complication of the underlying disease with reactive hepatitis, pain is noted over the entire surface of the liver.
In case of injuries, accompanied not only by damage to the bladder and duct, but also by rupture of the hollow organs, their contents enter the abdominal cavity and cause peritonitis, which manifests itself as severe pain throughout the abdomen.
The doctor can clarify the localization of pain and suspect a particular pathology using the main examination method - palpation. At the same time, the “cystic symptomatology” characteristic of the disease is revealed:
- Symptom of Kera - painful sensations are noted with slight pressure on the intersection of the lower rib on the right and the rectus abdominis muscle (its edge).
- Murphy's symptom is the discomfort of taking a deep breath, while the specialist evenly presses his fingers at the above point.
- Grekov's symptom is the appearance of painful sensations with a light tapping of the palm of the palm along the edge of the twelfth rib on the right. This symptom is necessarily checked from two sides, in order to compare the intensity of pain.
- The symptom of Georgievsky is the appearance of soreness, which is felt when pressing with a finger in the right hypochondrium, namely between the legs of the sternocleidomastoid muscle. At the same time, they arise in the neck and give down, along the phrenic nerve, the branches of which partially innervate the liver and bile ducts.
Important! Occasionally, pain can radiate to the left half of the chest, simulating an attack of angina pectoris or a heart attack. An urgent ECG and ultrasound of the abdominal organs will help to differentiate these conditions.
Characteristic symptoms of pain and provoking factors
In chronic cholecystitis and gallstone disease, pain is aching and oppressive. An attack of colic, in the case when the stone enters the common bile duct and cannot leave it into the intestinal lumen, is accompanied by intense, stitching or cutting pain, intensifying with a change in body position.
Oncological pathologies are extremely difficult to diagnose due to the fact that the pain syndrome is absent or slightly expressed. Instead, there is a slight feeling of heaviness and discomfort in the right half of the abdomen, which does not alarm patients and leads to a late visit to a specialist and untimely detection of the disease.
The factors that trigger the occurrence of unpleasant sensations include:
- Eating plenty of fatty, fried foods. Under the influence of lipids, special receptors located in the intestinal mucosa send an impulse to the gallbladder to empty. In the case of pathology, this process is difficult, which leads to muscle spasm and the appearance of painful sensations.
- Attacks of colic are provoked by excessive physical exertion, especially the one during which the body is shaking (jumping, running, cycling). In this case, there is a shift of calculi in the cystic cavity, some of them can go into the lumen of the duct and lead to acute colic.
- The intensification of pain is often observed after severe stress, excessive psycho-emotional stress, and is often observed against the background of sleep disturbances or insomnia.
Important! Knowing the factors that trigger the onset of pain attacks will help the doctor quickly determine the correct diagnosis and prescribe the appropriate treatment.
Bubble pathologies are manifested not only by pain. There are a number of characteristic clinical signs, due to which it is possible to suspect damage to the organs of the hepatobiliary system.
Most often, patients complain of:
- Sensation of an unpleasant, bitter taste in the mouth.
- Nausea, vomiting after taking fried, decreased appetite.
- Fever in an acute inflammatory process.
- Bloating, alternating diarrhea and constipation.
- Yellowing of the skin, itching, discoloration of feces and darkening of urine - with obstructive jaundice, complicating the course of cholelithiasis.
- General weakness, increased fatigue, decreased exercise tolerance.
The severity of symptoms depends on the stage of the disease, concomitant pathologies and individual characteristics of the patient's body. Based on clinical manifestations, as well as data from additional studies, the gastroenterologist selects the appropriate treatment.
Important! Do not ignore the pain, discomfort that occurs in the right hypochondrium and other unpleasant manifestations. Pain is a sign of a malfunction in the body, if it occurs, you must consult a doctor for the purpose of diagnosis and treatment.
The main role of the body is the storage of bile until the moment when food begins to enter the stomach. This liquid has an antibacterial function, preventing the processes of decay in the intestine, helps to break down fats, improves the absorption of proteins and carbohydrates. It enhances the motor and secretory functions of the small intestine, reduces the increased acidity of gastric juice, and has a bacteriostatic effect.
Where is the gall bladder
This organ, resembling a pear, is located on the lower surface of the liver, in which bile is subsequently produced into the bladder. Further, the fluid enters the duodenum, where it is involved in the digestion process. It has a strong destructive effect, therefore, in the normal state of the body, it does not come into contact with either the intestines or the pancreas.
How gall bladder hurts
Unpleasant sensations are localized in the abdomen or right hypochondrium. In the acute form of the disease, the pain is sharp, in chronic - dull, aching. May be accompanied by cramping. Over time, the malaise goes into the liver, sometimes giving back. Other characteristic signs are bitterness in the mouth, nausea, loss of appetite.
This is called acute or chronic inflammation of the organ caused by stagnation of bile. Its first sign may be a sensation of a hot lump in the throat or bitterness in the mouth after eating.
- Too rare food intake. Meals should be at least three times a day.
- Liver problems. To prevent this, it is better to abandon alcohol and reduce the consumption of fatty foods.
- Blockage of ducts, for example, due to gallstone disease.
- Symptoms in women are more common during pregnancy due to dysbiosis and hormonal imbalance.
- Hereditary predisposition.
- Vitamin A deficiency
Since the human digestive organs are closely interconnected, the inflammation of some is quickly transmitted to others. Thus, cholecystitis is often accompanied by pancreatitis and gastritis. Such combinations can lead to serious complications. The fact is that with certain digestive disorders, pancreatic juice enters the gallbladder. It causes cholecystitis. And, conversely, if bile is in the pancreas, it turns into pancreatitis.
Video: Elena Malysheva about organ diseases.
The disease must be treated before it becomes chronic. If this happens, then the outflow of bile becomes weaker, due to which poorly digested food enters the intestine, which provokes other disorders.
It is characterized by the presence in the biliary system of calculi, solid formations consisting of cholesterol, calcium salts or pigment. In developed countries, one third of all women and one in four men suffer from this disease.
Why stones are formed:
- Irregular, inadequate or excessive nutrition.
- Change in hormonal levels due to taking medications or pregnancy.
- Lack of motor activity.
- Pancreas problems.
- Biliary dyskinesia.
- High concentration of salts in bile. This occurs in metabolic disorders.
Which indicates the presence of deposits:
- Vomiting with discharge of saturated yellow color. Sometimes diarrhea, constipation, or urination problems occur.
- Periods of exacerbation may be accompanied by yellowing of the eyes and skin, severe pain arising from the movement of calculi along the excretory tract.
- Severity in the right hypochondrium.
- Bitter taste in the mouth.
As long as calculi do not lead to blockage of the duct, a person may not experience unpleasant sensations. But when the stone blocks the bile ducts, colic occurs, leading to a sharp pain. Sometimes the discomfort that caused great suffering at night becomes weaker in the morning. The attack occurs suddenly, and to prevent it, you need to pay attention even to slight painful sensations in the right side and nausea.
If symptoms of an approaching attack appear, it is necessary to switch to a moderate, but regular diet. This will reduce the risk of developing an acute form of the disease. A small stone can independently pass through the duct and enter the duodenum, after which it leaves the body with feces.
This is a violation of the organ motility, from which women and adolescents suffer more. Due to dyskinesia, bile is not secreted immediately after food enters the duodenum from the stomach, which results in stagnation of the contents. In some cases, this is due to spasm.
Causes of the primary stage of the disease:
- Psychosomatic disorders.
- Malfunctions in the hormonal background.
- Violations of the reproductive system.
Secondary dyskinesia is caused by chronic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, such as colitis, gastroenteritis, cholecystitis, as well as infectious pathologies.
- Nausea, vomiting.
- Unbroken burp.
- Cramps that turn into severe pain, in some cases, capture the right side of the back. Sometimes the unpleasant sensations are not so intense and appear only with pressure. Attacks can subside, and then come back with renewed vigor and last more than a week.
- Sweating, palpitations.
- Diet with the exception of heavy foods (fried, smoked, salty) and diet.
- Stabilization of the nerve background is the most important factor in recovery. You may need to take tranquilizers or visit a specialist.
- To alleviate the condition, means are used that improve the outflow of bile.
- Antispasmodic pills help cope with pain. They must be taken until the discomfort is gone.
- If the disease is associated with disorders of the vegetovascular system, you need to contact a neurologist.
- A good prevention is moderate physical activity, short walks.
- In combination with medicines, traditional medicine can be used. The most effective natural remedies are carrot and pumpkin juices.
Kink of the neck
Usually it is a congenital pathology that disappears in children aged 3-4 years with the transition to solid food and does not require treatment. The acquired form of the disease is formed with a serious violation of the diet. For example, with excessive consumption of food immediately after starvation.
An excess of the neck manifests itself as pain in the right side, passing into the area of the clavicle and spine. Digestion is disturbed, nausea and vomiting appear. The heartbeat is quickening, salivation is increasing. The skin on the patient's face becomes pale. Bloating, general weakness, and sometimes fever are also observed.
If these symptoms appear, consult a doctor immediately. In difficult cases, necrosis of the neck occurs, due to which bile will flow directly into the abdominal cavity, which entails the death of the patient. Therefore, immediate surgery may be required. However, most often it is enough to follow a diet with a strict regimen of eating and performing special exercises at home. The use of medications for bending the neck does not give a particular effect.
During the fight against disease, a certain diet is needed. Food is taken up to 6 times a day. Fatty, spicy, smoked foods, as well as alcoholic and carbonated drinks are excluded from the diet. Plant foods, especially wheat bran added to food, will be beneficial. Dairy products are also recommended.
The following therapeutic methods are used to remove calculi:
- If the size of the stones is not more than 2 cm, they can be dissolved by taking special products such as chenodeoxycholic acid. The course of treatment lasts up to one and a half years and does not prevent the appearance of new stones in the future.
- Lithotripsy is the destruction of formations with the help of a shock wave into small fragments, which subsequently come out with feces. The procedure is effective with a small number of stones with a diameter of up to 3 cm. This is a painless technique that is often used in medical institutions.
In case of failure or impossibility of therapeutic treatment, an operation to remove the gallbladder, called cholecystectomy, is necessary. With the classical method, a wide abdominal incision is made, and subsequently there are stitches about 10 cm long. Laparoscopy is a more modern type of operation. In this case, small holes are made up to 1 cm in diameter, through which the tools are inserted inside. The advantage of this method is a shorter hospitalization and recovery time.
Professor Neumyvakin on disease prevention.
Who to contact
For treatment and diagnosis, you need to consult a gastroenterologist. Even if by all signs the patient has cholecystitis or gallstone disease, an ultrasound of the pancreas, liver, peritoneum and intestines is additionally performed. Gastroscopy is also used to detect stomach problems.
Only a comprehensive examination can show a complete picture of the disease process. If the case is complex, an X-ray diagnosis is also required. Previously, a contrast agent is introduced into the body through the mouth or vein.
Problems of the biliary system can lead to serious consequences:
- Phlegmon - a violation of the blood supply to the diseased organ, which leads to the death of the walls and the risk of rupture.
- Jaundice appears with an excess of bilirubin pigment in the body caused by obstruction in the ducts. Leads to yellowing of the skin and eye proteins.
- Pancreatitis is an inflammation of the pancreas. In many cases, it is the stones that become its cause, fortunately, this form of pathology is far from the most dangerous. With pancreatitis, the upper abdomen in the middle or left can hurt.
- Sepsis is a common infection of the body with microbes. It happens due to the entry of pathogenic bacteria from the ducts into the bloodstream. Symptoms include fever, low blood pressure, chills, and an increase in white blood cell count.
- Intestinal obstruction can be caused by a large stone entering the small intestine.
- Fistulas are openings between adjacent hollow organs. Appear in cases where the stone damages the soft tissues of the duct, small intestine or stomach. If the integrity of the peritoneum is violated, this leads to peritonitis.
General symptoms of abnormalities
The main sign of the presence of diseases of this organ of the digestive system is an increase in its size to the possibility of palpation. In addition, people with similar problems quite often experience severe pain in the right hypochondrium. Subsequently, they spread down the back to the lower back and up to the right shoulder blade and shoulder.
All these symptoms are supplemented by uncharacteristic muscle tension in the upper abdomen. The early stage of the disease is characterized by paroxysmal onset of pain. Deep and increased breathing, coughing, being in an uncomfortable position of the body provoke and intensify pain.
Now you get an idea of the nature of the pain caused by the malfunction of the gallbladder. All of the above symptoms can last a long period of time, or occur sporadically, suddenly appearing and disappearing after a few hours. Patients often complain of nausea and vomiting, after which they do not feel relief. Violation of the functions of this organ causes an increase in body temperature, increased heart rate, the patient experiences constant thirst and dry mouth.
If you find yourself in the above symptoms, it is better not to hesitate and consult a doctor. His duty will be to conduct an examination, make a diagnosis and, according to the latter, prescribe a treatment that will relieve pain and eliminate inflammation inside the organ.
Acute or chronic cholecystitis
The disease is characterized by severe inflammation of the gallbladder, which is accompanied by impaired bile secretion. From the position of an afflicted person, it feels like aching pains, discomfort in the lower rib area on the right side. As practice shows, this condition can last quite a long time. The use of fatty, fried foods, spicy foods, eggs, alcohol and drinks with gas only reinforce these sensations, especially immediately after their use. After the meal, the patient is tormented by nausea, bitter belching, gas congestion in the intestines, dry mouth.
You can only entrust the treatment of the aforementioned ailments to an experienced gastroenterologist. Diagnosis and treatment are made only after examination by the patient. As a rule, the doctor recommends an ultrasound examination of the abdominal cavity. This makes the diagnosis more accurate, and the prescribed treatment measures more effective.
Therapy of cholecystitis, regardless of its form, should be carried out under the constant supervision of the attending physician. The first thing that a specialist pays attention to is the restriction of the patient in certain foods. It is strictly forbidden to use fried, fatty, confectionery and bakery products, chocolate and products with its content. From liquids, alcohol-containing and carbonated drinks should be excluded from the diet. It is necessary to refrain from adding spices, hot seasonings, including fresh pepper, onions, garlic.
In addition to diet, patients with diseases of the gallbladder are prescribed antibacterial, antiparasitic and choleretic drugs. Also, in the practice of doctors, the use of antispasmodic drugs to relieve pain at the initial stage of treatment is common.
In some cases, only when absolutely necessary, the doctor prescribes special enzymes and other drugs that normalize intestinal motility and motility.
After the acute phase of the disease, the treatment continues with the use of physiotherapeutic procedures and the use of mineral water.
If the methods of modern therapy cannot defeat the ailment and the patient's condition has not significantly improved, the only way out is surgery. Removal of the gallbladder can also be carried out with a diagnosis of calculous cholecystitis. There are two ways to excise the gallbladder: abdominal intervention by incision or a less traumatic laparoscopy procedure.
Functions and Features
The role of the gallbladder in the human digestive system is enormous. The main task of this body is the accumulation and excretion of fluid produced by the liver. Bile is almost the main element of the digestion process. It helps the body absorb fats and helps move food through the intestines. The dimensions of the organ are very small, the length is from 8 to 14 cm, in width it is from 3 to 5 cm, the capacity of the bladder is 40 ml. However, if signs of the disease appear, then these parameters can change, which is easily determined by palpation at the doctor’s appointment.
Pain in the gallbladder may indicate that some pathological processes have arisen in this organ, which must be quickly and accurately diagnosed. It is on how quickly and correctly a person begins to heal his bladder, the effectiveness of therapy and the entire state of the body will depend.
In order not to trigger pathological changes in this important organ, you need to know how the gall bladder hurts. Only a specialist can determine the severity of the condition and accurately diagnose the patient. In this case, if there are pains in the gallbladder, you should immediately consult a gastroenterologist. Signs that may indicate bladder disease:
- pain in the right hypochondrium,
- severe nausea leading to vomiting,
- bitter taste in the oral cavity
- greasy plaque on the tongue,
- redness of the tongue,
- the color of urine is bright yellow, cloudy.
Often, many take bladder disease for pain in the liver. Still unpleasant sensations can give to the back, lower back, shoulder and shoulder blade on the right side. Be that as it may, it is still necessary to seek the advice of a doctor.
All of the above symptoms can manifest themselves paroxysmally and disappear after 2-3 hours. If the work of the organ is seriously impaired, then a person may feel dryness in the oral cavity, fever and heart palpitations.
Types of diseases
There may be several reasons why the gallbladder hurts:
- inflammation or cholecystitis,
- the presence of stones
- dyskinesia of the ways
- tumor formations.
Bladder treatment should be prescribed in each case individually and only by a specialist. Pathology of the gallbladder:
- Cholecystitis is an inflammation of the bladder. It can be of 2 types: chronic and acute. In this case, the bile excretory functions of the organ are disrupted. A person with such a disease constantly feels aching pain on the right in the hypochondrium. Deterioration can occur after ingestion of spicy and fatty foods, eggs, alcohol.
- The stones. Where does it hurt with gallstone disease? The answer is simple: in the entire abdominal cavity with an emphasis on the right hypochondrium. Stones are formed as a result of the subsidence of cholesterol, which is located in the bile. The stones themselves do not present any danger when they are inside the organ. The whole seriousness of their presence appears when they begin to move. Then the bile duct leading to the intestine may become blocked. What to do if stones appear in the gallbladder? Dissolve them if the patient does not have diabetes. Diagnose the presence of stones will help ultrasound.
- Dyskinesia. The motor function of the gallbladder is impaired. Due to such a failure, the flow of fluid (bile) into the duodenum is disrupted.
Dyskinesia has 2 main types:
- hypotonic dyskinesia - a decrease in the motor activity of the bladder,
- hypertonic - increased activity of the movement of the gallbladder.
With hypotension of the bladder, the patient feels aching pain in the hypochondrium on the right side, nausea and bloating. This condition leads to the formation of stones. With hypertension of the gallbladder, the patient has sudden paroxysmal pain.
The following signs may indicate the possible presence of a neoplasm in the gallbladder: severe weight loss, jaundice, weakness, and ascites.
Only a gastroenterologist can treat and examine the gallbladder. After the doctor examines the patient and listens to his complaints, he can prescribe additional examinations that will help clarify the diagnosis, for example, ultrasound or tests.
Cholecystitis must be treated primarily with a strict diet. It includes restrictions on the use of fatty foods, alcohol and carbonated drinks, pastry baking and fresh bread. The diet for pain in the gallbladder recommends the use of meat and fish of low-fat species, slightly dried bakery products. With bouts of pain in the bile, you can use painkillers, but the doctor should tell you how to relieve the pain. In addition, people suffering from diseases of the gallbladder are prescribed antimicrobials and parasite medications. In order to improve the outflow of bile, therapy with choleretic drugs is recommended.
Surgery on the gallbladder is carried out only when there is no sense in treating the organ with therapeutic methods. The removal of the gallbladder today is carried out in several ways.
The first is a traditional abdominal surgery. The second, more modern and less traumatic, is laparoscopy (through small holes in the peritoneum). In addition to tablets, pain can be removed and folk remedies. In any pharmacy you will find chamomile, calendula flowers, peppermint, sandwort, etc. All of these medicinal herbs help alleviate the symptoms of the disease.
However, it is not worth completely relying on folk remedies; it is better to turn to specialists for help.
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Specialists of the portal constantly monitor news in the field of treatment and diagnosis of liver diseases in order to timely inform readers about them. If you are interested in any specific information or if you need the advice of an experienced doctor, ask our expert a question. This, of course, will not replace the delivery of tests and a trip to a real doctor, but the advice of our specialist will never be superfluous. Take care of your liver too - and it will repay you the same!
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