Under the mask of intestinal colic, very serious abdominal pathologies may be hidden, in which surgical intervention may be necessary. That is why a similar symptom should make the doctor wary and be able to quickly navigate in determining the causes of the disease process. Often, intestinal colic is associated with such a thing as an “acute abdomen”, they can indicate both functional disorders of the intestine and its deep organic lesions.
- Common causes of colic become digestive system diseases (gastritis, ulcers, pathologies of the pancreas, liver, gall bladder). Such conditions are accompanied by digestive disorders, semi-digested food enters the small intestine and causes its spasm.
- To intestinal colic and bloating often leads eating cold or stale food or products during the preparation of which fermentation processes are used (sauerkraut, soaked apples, kvass, yeast dough products).
- Irregular and unbalanced nutrition, overeating, dry food, rare snacks, eating fried, fatty, smoked or spicy foods.
- Food poisoning poor-quality or expired products, poisonous mushrooms, drugs.
- Intestinal infectionscaused by the ingestion of pathogenic microbes (salmonella, dysenteric rods). Once in food and multiplying, these microorganisms produce toxins, and when this food is consumed, toxic infection develops (foodborne toxicosis). Acute intestinal infections include dysentery, salmonellosis, and cholera. Only an infectious disease doctor can determine the causative agent, based on laboratory tests (bacterial stool cultures, blood tests for an immunological reaction).
- Nervous strain, stress. The onset of the symptom is possible on nervous grounds, especially in impressionable people with a thin physique, having a congenitally incorrect path of the spread of excitation to the intestines. This situation is quite rare and is associated with stress factors (responsible exam, important date, job interview).
- Poisoning salts of heavy metals. Lead is especially dangerous in this regard. At risk are workers in hazardous and chemical industries who are exposed to toxic substances for a long time. Lead salts, when ingested, cause so-called lead colic (pain and cramping in the abdomen). Acute and chronic lead poisoning is confirmed by a blood test and an examination of the oral cavity, during which a "lead border" is found - a grayish strip between the gums and teeth.
- Helminth infection. The parasites that inhabit the intestine, constantly affect its walls, causing irritation of the nerve endings. Symptoms of helminthiasis, in addition to intestinal colic, are nausea, lack of appetite, weight loss. Diagnosis of parasitic diseases is based on laboratory tests of feces for helminths and blood tests.
- Colic may occur with flu or SARS. Viral infections affect not only the respiratory, but also the digestive system and settle in the lymph nodes of the abdominal cavity, causing their inflammation. These nodes are located in the mesentery of the small intestine and, irritating it, provoke spastic pain.
This type of intestinal syndrome is characterized by mixed symptoms, when, in addition to pain, colic is accompanied by digestive upset (diarrhea) and respiratory infections (cough, runny nose, sore throat and redness). Pain in the muscles of the abdominal wall can be quite strong and intensify with movement, which can lead to diagnostic errors. In such cases, consultation with the surgeon is necessary.
- The cause of intestinal colic can be obstruction of the intestine, impaired motility, stretching of the intestinal loops, accumulation of feces, or mechanical obstruction (tumor, adhesions). An unpleasant state can occur due to weight lifting and excessive physical activity.
There are many factors causing intestinal colic, only a specialist can figure out the causes of an unpleasant symptom and determine measures that can eliminate pain and alleviate the patient's condition. What are the main symptoms associated with intestinal colic?
The most striking signs of intestinal colic in adults are:
- Attacks of acute, unbearable pain, accompanied by cramping. The pain rapidly increases and radiates in men to the testes, in women to the genitals. On palpation of the abdomen, the muscles are not tense, but the patient feels severe soreness. Pain is not short-term, it can last from several hours to several days. An increase in body temperature is not observed. At the same time, cramping pains can somewhat weaken, but other symptoms may occur that accompany the patient's condition (gas retention, constipation, abdominal tenderness).
- If the patient suffers from an acute form of gastritis, then intestinal colic can be accompanied by dyspeptic symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, belching, and bloating.
- Diarrhea often develops, accompanied by cramping in the stomach, mucus secretion during bowel movements.
- The patient has weakness, aversion to food, deterioration in overall health.
With intestinal colic, acute intestinal obstruction may begin. In this case, severe cramping and excruciating pains occur throughout the abdomen, vomiting opens. In the future, there is a delay in gas and stool, bloating, a sharp decrease in pressure. The patient may fall into prostration, he has pallor, lethargy, cold sweat. This condition is life-threatening and requires immediate hospitalization and surgical intervention.
When such symptoms appear, it is important not to self-medicate, but to call an ambulance in a timely manner. This will help get adequate and proper treatment.
Types of colic in adults
- Rectal (rectal) colic. It is characterized by false and painful urges to empty the rectum.
- Appendicular colic. Most often noted in the first hours of the development of acute appendicitis and is characterized by increasing severe pain in the iliac region on the right.
- Lead colic. It develops with lead poisoning and is characterized by sharp cramping abdominal pain, muscle tension in the abdominal wall, fever up to 39 ° C, bleeding from the gums and a gray coating between the gum and teeth. At risk are workers in hazardous industries involved in the extraction and smelting of lead, the production of paints, batteries, cables.
- Renal colic. It is characterized by intense pain, radiating to the groin, lower back, and genitals. The pain intensifies during movement and is accompanied by an increase in temperature (up to 39 ° C), a decrease in blood pressure. The patient has a violation of urination, up to its complete cessation, nausea, vomiting. At the peak of the pain, loss of consciousness and fainting occurs. Renal colic is caused by urolithiasis, a tumor and kidney tuberculosis, an acute or chronic inflammatory process (pyelonephritis).
- Hepatic colic. Pain is felt in the right hypochondrium and is given to the shoulder and under the right shoulder blade. A bitter taste is felt in the mouth, nausea and vomiting with an admixture of bile may occur. Gallstone disease or acute cholecystitis causes colic.
- Pancreatic colic. It occurs with pathologies of the pancreas and is accompanied by nausea, vomiting, bloating, diarrhea. Initially, the pain is localized in the upper left half of the abdomen, and then it becomes a girdle. Pancreatic tumors or acute pancreatitis lead to this condition.
How to relieve intestinal colic at home?
Since colic can be caused by various reasons, then before the doctor arrives, in no case should you put an enema or apply a heating pad to your stomach. These actions can blur the clinical picture, complicate the diagnosis and complicate the patient's condition in cases where there is suspicion of intestinal obstruction or the development of appendicitis.
If after a medical examination it turns out that the patient has simple intestinal colic, you can consult with your doctor and get his permission to take the following actions:
- If the attack is caused by a stressful situation, sedatives should be taken.
- Drink No-shpu (2 tablets), washed down with a mint broth or take a bag of Smecta, dissolving it in 100 ml of water.
- Apply a heating pad with warm water to the inguinal region. This will help relax muscles and eliminate cramping.
- After that, you can make a cleansing enema with a decoction of mint or lemon balm. Usually, after the intestines are released from gases and feces, the pain subsides.
- Help relieve intestinal colic decoction of chamomile or immortelle.
- You can enter rectal suppositories with belladonna extract or drink one or two tablets of Besalol, Bellalgin, Becarbon.
After medical procedures, the patient should refuse food for 12 hours, you can drink unsweetened warm tea with crackers. In the following days, you should refrain from consuming foods that cause excessive gas formation.
Diagnosis and treatment of colic in adults
Intestinal colic can cause many reasons, so you can not do without qualified medical help. An experienced doctor will be able to find out the true cause of this condition and prescribe adequate treatment. To make the correct diagnosis, you need to undergo a full examination.
Initially, the doctor collects history data. It is important to identify whether in the past or now there are diseases such as cholecystitis, pyelonephritis, gallstone disease. The data on the place of work are being clarified, it is being ascertained whether the patient is working in hazardous industries, whether he has contact with lead or its vapor. The doctor should take into account the data of a family history of whether someone from close relatives had intestinal infections, diseases of the digestive system and urinary system.
The patient's complaints about the nature of the pain, their localization and associated symptoms are most carefully listened to.
Next, the doctor examines and palpates the abdomen. Tense muscles of the abdominal wall, soreness will indicate a pathological cause of colic. To clarify the diagnosis, the patient must undergo a series of examinations.
- General and biochemical blood test
- Analysis of urine
- Fecal occult blood test
- Ultrasound of the abdominal cavity. Allows you to identify a disease that provokes intestinal colic.
- Sigmoidoscopy. Using a special device, an endoscope, a visual examination of the rectum and part of the sigmoid colon is performed. This will help to identify injuries or ulcers of the intestinal wall, to find fecal stones that impede the passage of intestinal contents.
- Colonoscopy method. It allows you to visually examine almost the entire intestine and identify any pathological changes.
- CT (computed tomography of the intestine). The study is carried out with suspected tumor or damage to the intestines and internal organs.
If necessary, the patient is sent for additional consultation with a urologist, gastroenterologist or surgeon.
Further therapy will depend on the cause of intestinal colic. If these are diseases of internal organs such as cholecystitis, pyelonephritis, cholelithiasis or urolithiasis, urinary stenosis (narrowing), hepatitis, tumors, then the diseases themselves must be treated first.
If colic is caused by severe intestinal infection, hospitalization of the patient and treatment in a specialized infectious diseases hospital are necessary. With acute intestinal obstruction or the development of appendicitis, surgical intervention will be required. If colic is caused by a parasitic infection, helminthiasis treatment is prescribed.
To relieve the patient of excruciating pains, antispasmodics are used (Drotaverin, Becarbon, Notenzyl). As a first aid, the doctor may prescribe injections of Atropine, Papaverine or Diphenhydramine. After eliminating the pain syndrome, the patient should be under the supervision of a doctor, since for subsequent therapy it is important what the patient will feel after colic. If it turns out that the reason for such a condition is inaccuracies in nutrition, then after stool and gas exhaustion, colic disappears and the patient feels significant relief.
Causes of intestinal colic, such as toxicoinfection or intestinal infection, require serious treatment. A course of antibiotics is prescribed (Gentamicin, Levomycetin) and intestinal antiseptics (Biseptol, Furozalidone). In severe cases, intravenous infusion of glucose, saline solutions, vitamins, blood plasma is used.
Intestinal colic that occurs with influenza and acute respiratory infections are treated with antispasmodics, activated charcoal and vitamins. With vascular colic caused by insufficient blood flow to the vessels of the abdominal organs, the treatment consists in taking medications that improve the patency of the arteries.
Treatment of colic in adults with folk remedies
If colic is caused by parasitic infections, traditional medicine offers to be treated with the following means:
- Pumpkin seeds. Two tablespoons of crushed pumpkin seeds are poured with 300 ml of boiling water, 2 teaspoons of sugar are added and they drink such an infusion for five days.
- Tansy flowers. A tablespoon of dry raw materials is poured into a glass of hot boiled water, insisted and drunk throughout the day. The course is 2-3 days.
- With colic, it helps lavender oil. It calms the nervous system, relieves cramps and pain. It is enough to drink a small amount of water, in which 5 drops of lavender oil is added.
- Helps well decoction of white wormwood. To prepare it, 100 g of raw material is poured with cold water and left for two days. Then the container with wormwood is put on the stove and simmer for about an hour. The finished broth is filtered and 400 g of honey is added to it. Put on the fire again and cook until the mixture thickens. The finished broth is taken in a tablespoon four times a day.
- Colic intestines help relieve ginger tea or juicefresh cabbage. To make tea, just take ½ teaspoon of chopped ginger root in a glass of boiling water. Drink 2-3 cups of hot drink daily. It is better to drink cabbage juice before meals, diluting it with a small amount of water. It is useful to add beet or carrot juice to the drink.
- If intestinal colic accompanied by diarrhea helps infusion of alder cones, thyme, potentilla root, St. John's wort, lemon balm and nettle leaves. All ingredients are taken in equal amounts, a tablespoon of the mixture is poured with a glass of boiling water and insisted. Take 1/2 cup twice a day before meals.
Diet and proper nutrition for intestinal colic
Proper nutrition for intestinal colic is the rejection of fatty, fried foods, spicy, salty, pickled and smoked foods. It is not recommended to use seasonings, canned goods, carbonated drinks, muffins, sweets, yeast dough products. The use of meat dishes should be minimized, giving preference to low-fat fish, cereals, vegetable dishes.It is useful to drink fresh juices from carrots and spinach on an empty stomach, eat fruits and vegetables.
Nutrition should be complete and balanced. Eat foods rich in fiber and vitamins (fruits, raw and boiled vegetables, grated carrots, apples, pumpkin). Drink sour-milk drinks, herbal teas. Eliminate legumes and vegetables with coarse fiber, which cause increased gas formation in the intestines (cabbage, radish, radish, corn, turnip) from the diet.
Lead a healthy lifestyle, move more, give up bad habits (smoking, alcohol). When preparing food, observe the necessary sanitary standards. Do not overeat, eat food in small portions 5-6 times a day.
The nature and cause of pain
Most women experienced such unpleasant and painful symptoms as severe cramping in the lower abdomen. In this case, as a rule, various symptomatic drugs are taken that contribute to the reduction of pain. Painkillers, antispasmodics (No-Shpa, Papaverine) are used.
However, before drinking any medications, it is necessary to find out the cause of the pain. If such colic are physiological in nature, then therapy is not necessary. As for pathologies accompanied by similar manifestations, they require emergency medical intervention. To avoid possible consequences, it is recommended to consult a doctor in a timely manner and begin treatment.
The causes of cramping in the lower abdomen in women are physiological and pathological. Physiological pain manifests itself in premenstrual syndrome. Every second woman and girl faces them. At this time, as a rule, the following concomitant symptoms are observed: aching pain in the lower abdomen, cramping, colic, excessive irritability, swelling. In addition to PMS, the provoking factors of spasms can be alcohol abuse, stress, drugs. Female colic can be a result of spasms of an empty stomach and a crowded colon. Particularly noteworthy is such a factor as pregnancy. In the first trimester, pain occurs due to the fact that there is a sprain of the ligaments, muscles of the abdomen.
In addition to the physiological pain syndrome, a pathological one arises, which is a consequence of disturbances in the work of internal organs. Most often, severe cramps develop against a background of cystitis, inflammatory ailments of the ovaries, uterus and vagina, as well as fallopian tubes. For example, endometriosis, ovarian cysts, adhesions, fibromyoma and colpitis provoke soreness, discomfort in the lower abdomen. These diseases occur against the background of an increase in body temperature and vaginal discharge.
As for inflammatory diseases affecting the genitourinary system, they are accompanied by severe cramping and colic in the lower abdomen (cystitis, pyelonephritis). Additional symptoms include painful urination, discomfort in the lower back, swelling and fever. Soreness, colic accompany diverticulosis, hernia and other disorders in the pelvic organs. Prolonged constipation, upset stool - causes of thickening of the intestine, intestinal hypertrophy. Additional symptoms: lack of appetite, fatigue, flatulence. A cut in the lower abdomen may be a signal of oncology (ovarian cancer, uterus cancer).
Some pathological conditions need urgent surgical intervention: appendicitis, ectopic pregnancy, perforation of peptic ulcer, torsion of uterine fibroids, rupture of a cyst and other dangerous diseases. Failure to provide timely medical care increases the risk of death.
Severe cramps, colic, pain, and heaviness in women in the lower abdomen occur with many gynecological pathologies:
- proliferation of uterine fibroids,
- genital tuberculosis, varicose veins,
- ovarian rupture,
- congenital pathology,
- severe soreness during critical days - algodismenorea,
- the threat of miscarriage at different times,
- improperly installed uterine spiral,
- adhesion process
- ovarian hyperstimulation, developed as a result of taking hormonal drugs,
- acute stage of inflammatory processes.
Each of these cases needs emergency medical care, which will help to avoid undesirable consequences and complications.
Right lower abdominal pain
In some cases, it is difficult to determine the localization of pain, as sensations are reflected in other organs and parts of the body. In the case of diffuse colic, the diagnosis is even more difficult. With pain in the lower right abdomen, appendix inflammation is primarily suspected. There are many diseases accompanied by similar pain and severe cramping below.
Discomfort and colic on the right are observed with lesions of the gastrointestinal tract. Basically, the onset of the pathology is manifested by pain in the iliac region, gradually going down.
Right-sided colic and severe abdominal cramps occur for the following reasons:
- damage to the uterus, appendages, fallopian tube and ovaries,
- cholecystitis - damage to the gallbladder,
- inflammation of the liver and intestines,
- infection in the ureter,
- pricks ulcerative,
- colitis and pyelonephritis.
In the case of cramping pain, an adhesion process, an ectopic pregnancy, and renal colic can be suspected. If there is renal colic, soreness can be given to the groin, lower back, and inner femoral surface. When the problem is gynecological in nature, pain is present in the rectum and sacrum. Sharp sudden pains accompany an exacerbation of the pathological process. In this case, urgent medical attention is required.
The presence of such signs signals about certain pathologies. When diagnosing, concomitant symptoms, the nature and intensity of the pain syndrome are taken into account.
The main causes of discomfort:
- Pathology of the genitourinary system (inflammation of the cyst, adnexitis).
- Inflammation in the large intestine. A similar ailment occurs against a background of constipation or diarrhea, nausea, flatulence. Symptoms disappear after a few days, subject to a strict diet. If the pain does not subside, you need to see a doctor.
- Ectopic pregnancy. In this case, the cutting pains are poured from left to right. Sensations are cramping in nature. Emergency hospitalization and the help of a surgeon are required, this will help prevent a fallopian tube rupture.
To establish the true cause of the pathology will help a competent combined examination. Most ailments originate from right-sided and left-sided pains.
Timely medical care can not only cure and help get rid of unpleasant symptoms, but also save a life. If you experience suspicious pain and cramping, you should immediately consult a doctor.
Abdominal muscle cramps are divided into:
- tonic - characterized by prolonged muscle tension,
- clonic are jerky spasms. They differ from the previous variety in that muscle contractions alternate with the relaxation of smooth muscles.
In each person, cramps in the abdominal muscles will be accompanied by the manifestation of individual clinical signs. The first symptom against which other symptoms will develop is pain. It can be either periodic or permanent. The degree of intensity varies from dull and aching, to sharp and cutting. In some cases, the soreness can be so pronounced that a person is forced to take an uncomfortable position, often knee-elbow. Sometimes it’s the other way around - it’s very difficult to stay in one place, and to reduce pain you need to move more.
In addition, severe abdominal cramps can be supplemented by the following symptoms:
- nausea, which often leads to vomiting. Often blood impurities are present in the vomit,
- difficulty breathing
- vaginal bleeding
- temperature increase
- irradiation of pain on the entire surface of the anterior wall of the abdominal cavity, in the perineum and scrotum, on the chest, neck and shoulder,
- a change in the shade of feces - they will turn black
- violation of the bowel movement - cramps in the abdomen and diarrhea are much more common than constipation,
- the release of a large amount of cold sticky sweat,
- urinary retention.
So that a person does not have problems with abdominal cramps, you need to adhere to general rules, among which:
- Compliance with nutrition recommendations
- the implementation of good rest,
- avoidance of stressful situations and physical overwork,
- walking, especially after meals,
- taking medication only as prescribed by the clinician,
- drinking a lot of fluids per day,
- control of regular bowel movements,
- wearing a special bandage during pregnancy,
- passing a full medical examination several times a year.
Timely detection of abdominal cramps, as well as complete diagnosis and complex treatment increase the likelihood of a favorable prognosis - the complete elimination of the etiological factor and symptoms.
"Abdominal cramps" is observed in diseases:
Intestinal dysbiosis in children is a pathological process in which there is a violation of the composition of the intestinal microflora. The total number of opportunistic microorganisms is increasing, while beneficial bacteria are gradually dying. Imbalance provokes the appearance of a variety of gastrointestinal disorders, a decrease in the reactivity of the body, the progression of anemia, as well as other serious pathological conditions. In the medical literature, this ailment is also called intestinal dysbiosis.
Parametritis is an inflammatory process of the near-uterine tissue, in which venous and lymphatic vessels are localized in large numbers. In most cases, such a disease develops against the background of complicated abortion or labor, the establishment of intrauterine devices with damage to the uterine tissue. Any surgical interventions only provoke the spread and development of infection.
Tenesmus is a false urge to empty the intestines, which is accompanied by extremely unpleasant sensations. Another name for pathology is a futile urge. Quite often, such a syndrome is present with dysbiosis, however, the exact causes can only be determined by diagnostic methods.
Enterovirus infection is a group of acute infectious diseases that affect not only adults but also children. A characteristic feature of this disorder is that enteroviruses initially multiply in the digestive tract, but do not cause expression of symptoms of intestinal diseases. The second place of localization of bacterial reproduction is the mucous membranes of the respiratory organs. Often, bacteria spread and affect the skin, heart, spinal cord, or brain. Virus activity can cause both a severe deterioration in the child’s health and cause a slight ailment. The incubation period is from two to thirty days, but often is no more than a week. Often affected by the disease are children or young people.
Erosion of the stomach is a violation of the integrity of the mucous membrane of this organ. A characteristic feature is that its deeper tissues do not undergo a pathogenic process, and after healing of erosion they do not leave any traces. Such a disease, combined with erosive damage to the duodenum, occurs in fifteen percent of all recorded diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.
Through exercise and abstinence, most people can do without medicine.
Symptoms of intestinal colic in women
Colic itself is a pain syndrome that occurs in the abdomen. Depending on the specific location, the syndrome can be renal, hepatic, as well as intestinal (other types are possible). The last option in women is most common.
Symptoms of intestinal colic are called:
- Spasm and pain as the most obvious and pronounced sign.
- Irradiating pains, manifested with a prolonged course of the syndrome. In this case, they extend to the lower back, inguinal region or tailbone. In some situations, it even seems that the pains cover the entire peritoneum.
- Bloating, flatulence and bouts of nausea, vomiting, which also form with a prolonged course of the syndrome. This interferes with the normal excretion of feces and the discharge of gases.
- Increased blood pressure.
- The breakdown, which with the development of intestinal colic in women, is becoming more pronounced.
The clinical picture is supplemented by stool disorder and an increase in temperature indicators. It should be understood that the symptoms of intestinal colic in women can vary depending on the specific form of the pathology (which will be described later), its age, the presence or absence of concomitant gastrointestinal diseases.
The causes of the disease
Gastritis, ulcer, pancreatic and liver diseases - this is what gastroenterologists will first suspect when colic occurs. However, the list of likely options is much more extensive. After all, it can be both an unbalanced diet, and food poisoning, intestinal infectious lesions. In addition, excessive nervous tension and stressful situations can provoke colic in women.
For no less obvious reasons, experts call poisoning with salts of heavy metals, a collision with helminths, as well as the presence of influenza or SARS.
The fact is that viral lesions exacerbate the work of not only the respiratory, but also the respiratory system, which provokes inflammation of the lymph nodes and other pathologies. Another separate factor in the development of pathology is intestinal obstruction. This is due to a violation of his motility, stretching loops, as well as an accumulation of feces.
Given a more than extensive list of possible diseases, it is vital for women to take intestinal colic extremely seriously.
Briefly about the types of colic
Gastroenterologists identify the following types of intestinal colic in women:
- Rectal, or rectal. It is associated with false and extremely painful urges to empty the intestines.
- Appendicular, which is detected in the first hours of the onset of acute appendicitis. Pathology is characterized by increasing severe pains on the right, in the iliac region.
- Lead - appears due to lead poisoning. It can be determined by sharp pains resembling contractions, fever, bleeding.
- Vascular, the cause of which is insufficient blood supply to muscle tissue. The most pronounced symptom is acute pain covering the entire peritoneum.
- Diagnosis of violations
A very important step preceding treatment is the diagnosis of pathology. An anamnesis is collected, a medical history and symptoms are clarified. Next, palpation of the abdomen is required, after which the gastroenterologist makes a decision on the implementation of gastroduodenoscopy, colonoscopy and sigmoidoscopy.
Also, a woman may need such types of checks as cholecystography, ultrasound, CT and MRI. In the list of laboratory diagnostic methods is an analysis of feces, a general blood test and, separately, urine.After this, treatment is prescribed, according to the results of which it is recommended to conduct an additional examination. It will help establish the results of the recovery course.
What to do and how to treat intestinal colic in women?
The recovery course can be medical or surgical. In the first case, medicines are used strictly according to indications and depending on the specific diagnosis. It can be activated carbon, silicon dioxide. Antispasmodics are also used (for example, Spasmolgon, Spasmomen and others that can fight spasms), combined names. Most often, they are a combination of an antispasmodic and anesthetic (Pepsan).
Separately, we are talking about antibiotics (Levomycetin, Kanamycin), which are not recommended for use on their own, because this can adversely affect the work of the liver, digestive system.
If such treatment is ineffective, and the woman’s condition continues to deteriorate, specialists are forced to resort to surgical intervention. Depending on the cause of the pathology, this may be the removal of part of the intestine, any neoplasm.
In addition, with intestinal colic, a separate part of therapy is diet. It must be remembered that:
- special attention is paid to fiber, which is present in vegetables, fruits and whole grains,
- useful are apples, carrots, pumpkin and bran,
- the exclusion of fat and refined foods is a prerequisite for nutrition,
- natural yogurts (made from starter cultures) that can be consumed every day will be useful
- eat better in small portions at the same time.
How to relieve colic at home?
In some cases, a woman may need information on how to stop or reduce the symptoms of intestinal colic on her own. First aid consists, first of all, in the use of one or two No-Shpa tablets. In the presence of vomiting, an enema can be made from mint broth - it will cleanse the intestines.
Further, it is recommended to use Smecta, and if poisoning is suspected, activated carbon or any other sorbent. All these events in no way eliminate the need to visit a gastroenterologist or call an ambulance.
What could be the consequences?
The consequences of the condition can be numerous, for example, impaired parietal digestion, problematic absorption of beneficial components, pathologically increased pressure inside the peritoneum - provokes vomiting syndrome. In addition, a woman may develop hypotrophy, gastroesophageal reflux, and secondary forms of enzymatic deficiency. Also, we can talk about dysbiosis, which often provokes chronic gastritis or an ulcer.
In order to exclude the very possibility of colic in the lower abdomen in women, it is strongly recommended to treat any gastrointestinal diseases, to prevent helminth infections. It is equally important to lead an active lifestyle, which includes morning exercises, daily walks in the fresh air.
It is also necessary to ensure a full sleep, a balanced diet. Another important stage of prevention is the elimination of bad habits, namely alcohol and nicotine addiction. All this will allow a woman to never encounter such an unpleasant condition as colic in the intestine.
A little about the structure of the intestine
The anatomical structure of the gastrointestinal tract consists of the following segments: stomach, duodenum (duodenum), small and large intestines. Food gruel from the stomach enters through the duodenum into the small intestine. It has a smaller diameter and anatomical structure. In its departments (jejunum and ileum), the food coma splits into small particles, which, in turn, are absorbed into the bloodstream in a certain amount.
Next, the "processed" pulp enters the large intestine (colon). It consists of the cecum and appendix, the transverse colon and rectum (ampoule, rectal canal and anus). Thanks to the developed muscular and mucous systems, as well as the large diameter of the tube, the food turns into a chyme or a completely exhausted material from which all nutrients are “squeezed”.
Causes of intestinal colic
In the intestine, colic appears after obturation (obstruction) of the lumen or overfilling of the intestine with a large amount of feces. Motility is impaired, that is, tone and peristalsis. Cramps cause severe paroxysmal pain.
Pain syndrome depends on the degree of stretching of the intestinal wall and on the irritable reflex of intestinal innervation. Cramps are accompanied by nausea, reflex vomiting, diarrhea, or constipation and fever.
Causes of intestinal colic:
- overeating meat, fatty, spicy and high-calorie foods,
- the use of expired products,
- the use of a large number of foods and drinks with a high concentration of yeast,
- infectious and inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract - dysentery, salmonellosis, botulism, cholera, dysbiosis,
- poisoning with inorganic substances - lead and its derivatives,
- stressful conditions
- intestinal parasites
- viral infection
- postoperative abdominal interventions,
- allergic reactions
- mechanical shock in the abdomen,
- gastrointestinal tract diseases, acute and chronic,
- oncological diseases,
- endocrine diseases
- hormonal dysfunction,
- intestinal obstruction.
In the exclusion of serious complications, even death, each of us needs to know everything about intestinal colic in adults, their symptoms and treatment. This information will help you provide yourself first aid.
Diseases in which intestinal colic appears
Colic in the large intestine is the main sign of food poisoning; it appears with gastritis, gastroenteritis, and infectious colitis. Paroxysmal colic is characteristic of salmonellosis, dysentery, botulism, tuberculosis, and pathogenic or conditionally pathogenic fungal infection.
A common cause of acute abdominal pain is helminthiasis caused by intestinal parasites such as roundworms, pinworms, bovine and pork tapeworm. The strongest pains in the intestines are observed with an acute abdomen, in this case it is necessary to determine precisely whether it is hepatic, renal intestinal colic or appendicitis. Patients with such a dubious condition immediately go to the surgical department.
Oncological diseases also cause colic with obstruction of feces. Intestinal intestinal invasion and perforated gastric ulcer cause severe intestinal cramps with vomiting, diarrhea, high body temperature and fainting. The picture of intestinal gas formation and colic is observed with influenza and SARS.
Closed abdominal injuries and abdominal surgery lead to intestinal colic. Lead intoxication is accompanied by spasms and a specific border on the gums. In the list of diseases that cause spasm of the thick section of the gastrointestinal tract, there is also an allergy. Spasmodic conditions of the gastrointestinal tract occur after previous ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes, as well as in diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system.
Symptoms of colic
The most important symptomatic component is severe and acute paroxysmal pain in the abdomen. It is accompanied by bloating, gaseous rumbling and an altered consistency of feces. The pain begins suddenly and goes on increasing, to an unbearable sensation. The localization of pain depends on gender, that is, in men it begins in the groin and testicles, and in women in the genital area and labia.
Symptoms of intestinal colic in women and men, regardless of location, have a general picture: an unbearable paroxysmal character, accompanied by nausea and a vomiting reflex. In such situations, it is necessary to conduct differential diagnosis in the exclusion of inguinal hernia and inflammation of the female genital organs: ovaries, uterus and fallopian tubes.
A clear sign of colic is a change in the consistency, color and smell of feces. Feces can be liquid, fetid, in the form of a sheep’s stool. In the feces, streaks are observed in the form of mucus, pus and undigested food. The veins have a ribbon-like or tubular shape.
In allergic reactions, eosinophils and pointed crystals resembling pulmonary sputum are constantly observed in the stool. With gastritis, gastroenteritis and colitis, feces are solid (sheep's stool), enveloped in mucus or pus. Bowel obstruction is characterized by a lack of feces. A characteristic concomitant symptom of colic after heavy metal poisoning is the rim of the gums.
If colic appeared in the intestines in adults, is it possible and how to treat them at home? There is no need to self-medicate spasmodic gastrointestinal attacks, some colic incidents can lead to irreversible processes and death due to relief of analgesic drugs. If the unbearable pain has disappeared, this is not the result of recovery, but a “time bomb” with appendicitis, intussusception or obstruction of the intestine (ileus), infringement of inguinal hernias and perforation of the intestines, as well as acute stomach syndrome.
First aid for intestinal colic
Intestinal cramps stop by applying dry heat or a hot water bottle to the abdominal area. The thermal effect relieves paroxysmal cramps, relaxing the muscles of the large intestine. In the field, a heating pad can be realized from a glass or plastic bottle filled with boiling water.
Patients suffering from chronic intestinal colic, flatulence and other gastrointestinal pathologies are not recommended to overeat and abuse meat products, as well as spicy, spicy seasonings, fatty foods, marinades, carbonated drinks and alcohol. For this group of people there is a special diet - tables number 1, 4 and 5, depending on concomitant diseases. On an empty stomach every day, drink 200-300 ml of fresh juice from carrots, red beets or spinach.
Therapeutic colic therapy takes place in several stages:
- Relief of pain by atropine, analgesics and antispasmodics.
- Prescribing desensitization for allergies (Analgin, Papaverine and Diphenhydramine).
- Prescribing antibacterial therapy for infectious colitis.
- Prescribing a balanced and complete diet with lifestyle changes.
- Therapy of a major acute or chronic disease.
Observing all these points, you can solve the question: how to get rid of intestinal colic once and for all.
What can I eat with intestinal colic? With intestinal cramps, dietary recommendations of a dietitian should be observed, excluding from the daily menu fatty and fried, pepper and spicy, sweet and sour, muffin and kvass, carbonated and alcoholic drinks, as well as smoked meats, pickled vegetables and salty foods. Meat products should be consumed according to a certain pattern and in small quantities. Every day, 100 grams of boiled chicken or beef is recommended.
Nutrition for intestinal colic is fractional and in small quantities. The menu certainly includes foods rich in trace elements and vitamins. These are fresh and passivated fruits and vegetables. Mushrooms, cereals, soups, rye bread, crackers, lean meat and fish are diet foods for colitis.
Decoctions, infusions and teas from medicinal herbs, namely wormwood, dill, mint, St. John's wort and chamomile, patients with intestinal colic need to take 200 ml every day three times with meals. There is a special diet for intestinal colic in adults - diet table number 4. Patients with acute and chronic forms of intestinal cramps are recommended liquid or semi-liquid dishes.
Features of the anatomy of the intestine. The structure of the intestinal wall. Motility.
The intestines are the longest part of the digestive system, which starts from the stomach and ends with the anus. It is a hollow tube along which food moves. In the intestine, the food lump is digested with digestive juices, the absorption of nutrients, the formation of feces.
- Small intestine. It starts from the stomach, has a length of 4-6 meters. It involves the digestion of food and the absorption of nutrients. The small intestine consists of three sections:
- Duodenum. It has a length of 25-28 cm, covers the pancreas. The pancreatic duct and common bile duct (common bile duct from the liver and gall bladder) open into the duodenum with a common mouth. During digestion, bile and pancreatic juice are secreted into the intestinal cavity.
- Jejunum. It has a length of about 2 meters. Then it passes into the ileum. There is no clear boundary between them.
- Ileum - the final section of the small intestine. It has a length of about 2-3 meters.
- Colon. It has a length of 100-150 cm. In it, the absorption of nutrients and water, the formation of dense stool (the contents of the small intestine are liquid), their withdrawal through the rectum and anus. The departments of the colon:
- Cecum. It has the appearance of a dome. The ileum flows into it. The appendix is leaving the cecum.
- Colon. It consists of an ascending, transverse, descending and sigmoid colon.
- Rectum. The final section of the intestine and the entire digestive system. It ends with the anus (anus), through which the feces are evacuated.
Intestinal Wall Layers:
- Mucous membrane forms folds and is covered with numerous finger-shaped outgrowths - intestinal villi. There are no villi in the colon.
- Muscle layer. Consists of two layers. In the internal muscle fibers pass in a circular direction, and in the external - in the longitudinal direction. In the colon, the longitudinal fibers are collected in three narrow ribbons. Between them there are protrusions - haustra. In the rectum, the longitudinal layer of muscle fibers becomes continuous again, and circular, thickening, form two pulp in the lower part - sphincters.
- Serous membrane. It is represented by the peritoneum - a thin film of connective tissue.
Causes of intestinal colic
The term "intestinal colic" is not strictly associated with any disease. This is just a designation of a special type of abdominal pain that can occur in various diseases.
The main mechanisms of intestinal colic:
- intestinal overstrain,
- muscle and nerve plexus irritationincluded in the intestinal wall,
- violation of peristalsiscontractions and muscle tone of the intestines,
- presence of an obstruction in the gutthat interferes with the passage of food.
Intestinal colic - what is it?
Answering the question of what is colic is very simple. This is the medical name for a sharp spastic pain syndrome, severe pain that occurs when muscle spasm is smooth. Speaking of such a syndrome with localization in the abdomen, intestinal colic and gastric colic caused by stomach cramps are usually distinguished. However, there are not only manifestations of colic associated with the stomach and intestines, but also manifestations associated with the liver, kidneys, biliary tract, etc.The root causes of intestinal colic and treatment methods are one of the most common questions of patients who turn to the therapist and gastroenterologist.
Why does intestinal colic occur?
The causes of intestinal colic are very diverse. Acute intestinal colic in the abdomen in adults differs from a similar phenomenon common in children up to 3-4 months of age, when the main reason is the adaptation of the nervous system and its excessive response to natural intestinal contractions during digestion and gas formation. Abdominal pain in adults indicates some process that irritates the nerve endings in the intestinal walls. What causes colic is generally known to medicine. However, as practice shows, one factor is often not enough, and colic in the abdomen is provoked by a complex effect of several. At the same time, various factors cause different in duration, frequency and intensity of abdominal pain in adults.
You should know that colic is often caused by eating disorders: an uneven diet, an unbalanced composition of food, the use of low-quality, spoiled foods leads to episodic colic in the stomach. As a rule, when adjusting the diet or the end of the action of an adverse factor, intestinal colic does not recur.
There are a number of diseases in the clinical picture of which colic in the abdomen is possible on an ongoing basis or with exacerbations of diseases. These include gastritis, intestinal infections of various etiologies (salmonellosis, cholera, dysentery), inflammatory, destructive, tumor processes, including appendicitis, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, enterocolitis, intestinal obstruction, etc., as well as parasitic infestations ( enterobiosis, ascariasis, giardiasis, opisthorchiasis). With a large number of intestinal parasites, they can irritate nerve endings and cause attacks of intestinal colic.
Traumatic lesions, abnormalities and pathologies of the intestinal structure are also often accompanied by attacks of intestinal colic.
Colic in the abdomen in adults: causes
The causes of colic in the abdomen in adults can be not only gastrointestinal diseases and dietary disorders, but also respiratory diseases, flu. So, with some acute infections, the lymph nodes located in the abdominal cavity are primarily involved in the inflammatory process. This can cause colic in the intestines. With this reason, after a few days, the symptoms of inflammation extend to the main organ of the respiratory system. In such cases, colic in adults have a reduced immunity as a primary cause.
Intestinal colic in adults: symptoms and diagnosis
The initial and basic symptom of intestinal colic is pain. The pain syndrome can be severely or weakly expressed, the nature of the pain can be paroxysmal, cramping, stitching, cutting, etc. Often, pain with bowel colic is accompanied by vomiting and nausea, flatulence can be observed. Also, pain is often accompanied by diarrhea.
The diagnosis of "intestinal colic" can be made on the basis of patient complaints, but the main task of a specialist is to identify what caused the phenomenon.
As part of the diagnosis, during the initial treatment of the patient with a complaint of intestinal colic, doctors carry out the following activities:
- medical history
- examination of the patient, first of all, using the method of palpation of the abdominal cavity,
- laboratory tests (general and biochemical blood tests, general urine analysis, general fecal analysis, including the detection of blood and egg worm inclusions,
- instrumental examination methods.
Anamnesis is collected by interviewing the patient. The patient is asked questions about:
- the nature of the pain syndrome
- frequency and regularity of manifestations,
- having problems with bowel movements,
- the presence of other symptoms (headache, fever, etc.),
- diet and regimen
- amount of physical activity
- the presence or absence of an appendix,
- the presence of various diseases (pyelonephritis, cholelithiasis, etc.),
- respiratory infections
- the likelihood of chronic intoxication associated with harmful production, etc.
Examination of a patient with intestinal colic is carried out, first of all, using the method of palpation. If palpation causes tension of the abdominal wall, the presence of pathological phenomena is likely.
Instrumental methods for examining a patient are used to clarify the etiology. May require an ultrasound examination of the digestive system, sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy, tomography, x-ray.
The conditional diagram of the need for diagnosis and its various directions is as follows. If it is known that colic has arisen once and passed on its own, without the use of medications and the accompanying symptoms of an intestinal upset, therapy is not required. Such pain can often be caused by overeating. In this case, you should pay attention to nutrition and physical activity.
If the pain has passed, but intestinal disorders, stool disorders are noted, the most likely diagnosis will be associated with manifestations of a viral infection, the use of stale food, etc.
If pain often recurs, an examination of the digestive system, tests for parasitic infections, the likelihood of poisoning with salts of heavy metals, etc. are required.
Sometimes acute intestinal colic is accompanied by bloating, vomiting, stool retention, and fever. With such symptoms, colic cannot be ignored. An urgent medical consultation is necessary and, probably, hospitalization on suspicion (depending on symptoms) of appendicitis, acute bowel obstruction and other life-threatening conditions.
Treatment for colic in the abdomen in adults
In some cases, severe pain is observed, which requires a special approach to therapy. Therefore, an unequivocal answer to the question of how to treat colic is generally impossible. It is important to know that symptomatic treatment with any medication (painkillers, antispasmodics) can eliminate colic, but it can also distort the clinical picture of the disease. This will prevent the doctor from making the correct diagnosis, identifying the source of pain and healing the patient. Self-administration of analgesics to eliminate pain is strictly prohibited.
What to do with intolerable severe pain? It is necessary to call an ambulance team, take a body position in which sensations decrease, and record changes in condition (fever, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, etc.).
The only exception to the rule are patients with previously diagnosed enterocolitis, cholecystitis and other chronic diseases. If the usual colic arises against the background of the disease, the symptoms of which do not differ from those experienced previously, you can take medications prescribed by your doctor to eliminate cramping.
The effectiveness of the diet depends on the factor that could provoke colic. If they arise against the background of poor nutrition and violation of the food intake regimen, then the benefits of the diet are undeniable. If the root cause is various diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, then it is necessary to follow the diet prescribed to patients with various diseases, and follow the prescriptions of conservative therapy.
Diets vary depending on the type of underlying disease. So, the presence of pancreatitis means a restriction of bakery products and baking in the diet, and with cholecystitis, baking can be consumed, but you need to limit the need for fried foods.
The general recommendations include the following:
- the exception of frying as a form of food processing, including fried meat, fish, fried eggs, omelettes, vegetables, etc.,
- if the pain syndrome is not accompanied by diarrhea, dairy products should be included in the diet,
- fresh fruits, vegetables are preferably eaten raw, but as mashed potatoes or finely grated,
- give preference to rice, buckwheat porridge in a small amount,
- completely eliminate carbonated, alcoholic drinks, coffee, strong tea.
Also, during exacerbations, it is recommended to avoid foods rich in fiber (legumes, cabbage, bran) and foods that contribute to increased gas formation.
Pain itself is not dangerous, although it is accompanied by severe discomfort. However, as an acute symptom, colic shows that something is wrong in the body. Therefore, it is extremely important to establish what exactly became the cause of the pain - spastic obstruction, appendicitis, colitis, etc. Even if pain does not appear again after taking analgesics and switching to the principles of healthy or dietetic nutrition, it is necessary to undergo examination by specialists to diagnose the main diseases or dysfunctions.
In some cases, gastrointestinal diseases occur with erased symptoms, and pain can draw attention to deviations from the norm and not ignore the symptoms of the violation.
Ignoring colic can lead to severe complications and pathologies of the abdominal cavity, destructive changes in the diseased organ. With pancreatitis, necrosis (death) of pancreatic tissue is possible. With appendicitis, the use of analgesic and antispasmodic drugs can lead to the development of a purulent form of appendix inflammation and peritonitis, which is dangerous in death.
If renal dysfunction hides behind colic, then the absence of therapy leads in most cases to acute and / or chronic renal failure.
Inflammatory processes in the liver tissue, accompanied by colic, without appropriate therapy can go into non-viral hepatitis in severe form with low therapeutic efficacy.
Painful cramps with stagnation of bile, gallstone disease, dyskinesia of the gallbladder contribute to a pathological increase in the level of bilirubin in the blood and the development of jaundice.
Cramps and pains in the colon and rectum, rectal pain can also indicate the onset of oncological changes in the walls of the intestines. If you ignore these symptoms, use painkillers and lack of diagnosis, the development of the tumor can reach the stage of metastasis or cause bowel obstruction, in which even emergency surgery does not always help save the patient's life.