Gastritis - inflammation of the mucous (inner) membrane of the stomach wall. When inflammation passes to the duodenum, the so-called gastroduodenitis is formed.
There are two types of gastritis and gastroduodenitis: with low and high acidity of gastric juice.
Chronic gastritis is a disease with recurrent inflammatory process in the mucous and submucous membranes of the stomach, accompanied by a violation of the regeneration of the epithelium and the development of atrophy, which inevitably leads to the development of secretory insufficiency with subsequent multiple digestive disorders.
Symptoms and treatment, as well as a description of the diet will be discussed in this material.
What it is? Among the main reasons for the development of chronic gastritis experts identify the following factors:
- Eating coarse food, marinades, smoked food, spices and hot spices. All this has a detrimental effect on the gastric mucosa and enhances the secretion of hydrochloric acid.
- Frequent use of overheated foods and hot drinks (coffee, tea). All of the above causes thermal irritation of the stomach.
- Long-term uncontrolled use of medications that irritate the stomach mucosa (we are talking about salicylates, some antibiotics, sulfonamides, and others).
- Irregular food intake, excessively fast chewing, the habit of eating dry.
- Alcohol addiction. Alcoholic beverages extremely adversely affect the work of gastric spysis, worsen the regeneration of mucosal epithelial cells, and cause problems with blood circulation. The simultaneous intake of a considerable amount of alcohol can provoke erosive gastritis.
Sometimes chronic gastritis is nothing but the result of the development of acute gastritis, however, most often it occurs and develops under the influence of various factors.
Antral chronic gastritis is caused by the presence of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori in the human body. It adversely affects the glands in the stomach and damages its mucous membrane. In some cases, such processes are accompanied by disorders of an autoimmune nature.
One of the forms of gastritis in question has a denorative-dystrophic character. This causes the inflammatory process in the mucosa and its scarring. It, in turn, leads to obstruction of the movement of food from the stomach into the duodenum. Antihelicobacter antibiotics, antacids, regenerating and anesthetic drugs are necessarily included in the treatment.
How to cure chronic gastritis of the stomach - diet, scheme and standards of effective treatment in children and adults
Published: June 10, 2015 at 11:58
Gastritis is called the inflamed gastric mucosa. And its chronic form is a long and aggravated lesion with restructuring and impaired functions. The disease accompanies the disruption of the work of the stomach, consisting in the deterioration of mixing and the movement of food into the cavity of the duodenum and the secretion of gastric juice. But, with all this, chronic gastritis can be cured.
There are chronic gastritis with high acidity and low. Inflammations are divided into primary (independent) and secondary (the cause of occurrence is another ailment) or because of the intoxication of the whole organism. How to treat chronic gastritis of the stomach?
What can trigger the development of pathology?
If the patient was diagnosed with acute gastritis, then, as a rule, strong irritants contributed to his development, which caused inflammation on the stomach walls. In the case when the disease occurs in a chronic form, then during the diagnosis specialists can identify progressive atrophy and structural changes in the mucosa.
The following factors may be considered as provoking the development of this pathology.:
- penetration into the body of pathogenic microflora,
- bad habits,
- eating poor quality food,
- violation of the diet,
- chemical and food poisoning, etc.
Manifestations of gastritis
The pathological process is accompanied by characteristic symptoms.:
- feeling of full stomach,
- gag reflex
- pain syndrome
- fetid odor from the mouth,
- the appearance of a gray or yellow patina on the tongue,
- feverish state.
Atrophic chronic gastritis - type A, in which the number of gastric glands decreases, the acid-forming function decreases. Atrophic gastritis is a precancerous condition.
Manifested by heaviness and dull pain in the stomach, nausea, heartburn, dyspeptic symptoms, anemia. Since 90% of gastric atrophies are associated with Helicobacter pylori, specific treatment usually involves the eradication of the infection. Substitution and symptomatic therapy, sanatorium treatment and physiotherapy are also prescribed.
Chronic gastritis: treatment
In order to prescribe an effective treatment of chronic gastritis, you need to know the causes of its occurrence. There are several:
- In the first place is the wrong diet. This applies not only to the products themselves, but also to the regularity of their intake and dry meal.
- Harmful habits - alcohol and smoking. Suspends the secretion of gel. juice and nutrients are bad in the stomach.
- The presence of the bacterium Helicobacter pilori, which is a provocateur of the onset of inflammation.
- Long-term use of medicines, especially antibiotics. The microflora of the stomach is killed, after which the shell begins to produce less mucus.
- Infections of the mouth, throat, intestines, gallbladder - can also cause disease.
- Constant stressful situations. Stress is a stimulus for failure in the diet - some begin to eat everything and in large quantities, others, on the contrary, refuse to eat. In both cases, the consequence is the appearance of stomach problems.
- In children, the stimulus to the development of the disease is admission to school. The general habitual mode changes dramatically, an increase in physical and emotional stress is added.
Common symptoms of chronic gastritis in children and adults are:
- pains of the upper abdomen, they can be long, aching and aggravated after eating, even vomiting may appear,
- burning sensation and heaviness
- appearance of belching and regurgitation,
- constipation or diarrhea,
- general malaise,
- sweating, dizziness and dehydration,
- poor appetite
- saliva begins to flow profusely
- bad breath
- irregular heartbeat, lowering blood pressure and even heart pain.
Knowing all this, you can find the right treatment for chronic gastritis. It is conservative (medical), with the help of diet and physiotherapy. All of these methods are standard treatments for chronic gastritis.
How to treat chronic gastritis in children and adults?
How to cure chronic gastritis? Many patients are interested in this question. So, you can cure chronic gastritis:
- proper nutrition
- physiotherapy methods
- drug treatment,
- medicinal plants
- mineral water
- homeopathic methods.
Proper nutrition for chronic gastritis: treatment and diet
During an exacerbation it is necessary to adhere to a diet at number 1.
- Eat small portions of fractional 5 to 6 times a day.
- To consume more mucous pureed soups, mashed potatoes, low-fat broths, crackers, jelly and cereals.
- Steam, boil or simmer. Reception of fresh fruits and vegetables is excluded, except for bananas, spicy, fatty, fried, smoked dishes, and also it is forbidden to eat canned food and drink carbonated drinks.
- The treatment of chronic gastritis diet includes the maintenance of dishes in a certain temperature regime - 40-50 degrees. Cold and hot food can not be consumed.
- Be sure to drink during the day to 1.5 liters of fluid.
- Do not overeat, rush, and in this state to have a snack, and also eat dry rations.
- Excluded alcohol and cigarettes.
Drug treatment of chronic gastritis
It consists in the following.
- Drugs that reduce the process of production of gastric juice (proton pump inhibitors).
- Neutralizers of hydrochloric acid in the stomach - antacids.
- The protectors of the protective film are gastroprotectors.
- Chr. gastritis - treatment by acting directly on the infection with antibiotics (two or three).
- Drugs to reduce pain, relaxing smooth muscles - antispasmodics.
- For normal food prokinetics are applied (with repeated vomiting).
- If there is pronounced dehydration, infusion therapy is carried out by intravenous drip injections of saline solutions.
Undoubtedly, it is impossible to hesitate at a disease hron. gastritis. Treatment should be started in a timely manner, but before proceeding you should establish your HP status and visit the attending physician. You will need information about the level of infection, how active the urease test and inflammation are.
Can chronic gastritis be cured at all? There is another medical method with which you can heal from this unpleasant disease in 7-10 days. It consists in certain treatment regimens for chronic gastritis, calculated for 7-10 days.
Scheme for 7 days
- 20 milligrams of omeprazole twice a day (observe the interval of 12 hours), plus 250 mg of clarithromycin 2 p. per day (children 7.5 mg per 1 kg of body weight per day) and plus 500 mg of metronidazole 2 p. a day after meals.
- 400 mg of ranitidine bismuth citrate twice a day after meals plus 250 mg 2 p. per day clarithromycin (children take 7.5 mg per kg of body weight per day) and plus 500 milligrams of metronidazole twice a day after meals.
Scheme for 10 days
150 mg of ranitidine twice a day (it is obligatory to observe a reception interval at 12 o'clock), plus 120 mg four times a day of a de-nola, plus 250 mg of tetracycline together with food of 5 r. per day plus metronidazole plus - 200 milligrams 5 r. per day with meals.
How to treat chronic gastritis of the stomach is up to the treating physician and the patient himself. In any case, the process cannot be started, because it can lead to a duodenal ulcer and even stomach cancer. And to understand whether chronic gastritis is treated or not can only be done using the methods described above.
How to cure chronic gastritis forever with the help of medicinal plants?
First of all, it is necessary to remove the inflammation, and this is chamomile, mint, St. John's wort and yarrow (half a cup three to four times a day before eating, treatment can be carried out up to a month).
Another excellent health effects have various fees, for example, one of them:
- tansy (flowers - one part),
- yarrow (grass - two parts),
- flaxseed (two parts),
- centaury (grass - two parts),
- marshmallow (root - two parts),
- wild rose (fruits - three parts),
- dandelion (root - three parts),
- thyme (herb - four parts).
All mixed in a thermos pour 3 tbsp. collection and pour one liter of boiled water. Insist until 8 o'clock, after which take 1 glass three times a day half an hour before meals.
To improve the appetite, you can drink a bitter wormwood tincture or plantain juice - 25 drops diluted in a quarter cup. Apply for this warm boiled water and consume before meals for 20 minutes.
How to get rid of chronic gastritis homeopathic methods?
This will only help a professional homeopath. The purpose of treatment is done, thoroughly studying the individual characteristics of the patient. It is not necessary to prove the uniqueness of each person, and when selecting drugs, the doctor takes into account the totality of the disease, and not just the main diagnosis. Self-medication is strictly prohibited! Homeopathic remedies are taken only under the supervision of a physician, although all of these drugs are freely available in all pharmacies.
Similar preparations happen with one active ingredient in structure (mono) or with several. The main in the treatment of chronic gastritis are silver nitrate, silver (Argentum nitrikum), white oxide of arsenic (Ars slbum), belladonna or belladonna, potassium dichromate (Kalium bizromikum), sulfur (Sulfur), the vomiting nut and chilibuha (Nux in-mic) and phosphorus.
All the above methods and recommendations will surely help to solve the main question - how to get rid of chronic gastritis forever and live a healthy full life, enjoying its every day!
Principles of basic treatment
Before starting treatment, a specialist must prescribe a comprehensive examination, taking into account the symptoms. He will need to know:
- The condition of the gastric mucosa, the presence of ulcers and erosion,
- The state of other digestive organs (pancreas, liver, spleen, gall bladder),
- The level of acidity of the stomach,
- The condition of the esophagus, whether there is a release of bile (reflux disease),
- The presence of helicobacteria.
In some cases, blood, urine and feces may be necessary. Additionally, you can undergo a bowel examination.
According to test results, the doctor prescribes treatment, which includes:
- Antacid preparations that suppress the production of hydrochloric acid with increased secretion of the stomach,
- Preparations blockers with increased acidity of the stomach,
- Inhibitor drugs,
- Medicines that improve intestinal motility,
- Enzyme preparations that accelerate the process of digesting food,
- When reflux drugs are prescribed, restoring the membrane, the thinning of which leads to the release of food from the intestine into the stomach,
Many believe that chronic gastritis cannot be completely cured. In fact, it is possible, if we promptly consult a specialist and undergo a comprehensive treatment according to the prescribed scheme.
You will also need to follow a diet and do not overload the stomach. This will completely cure the disease and prevent relapses.
Means of traditional medicine: when they are relevant?
Due to the abundance of information on how to treat chronic gastritis, many are trying to get rid of the disease themselves. And in the best case, using traditional medicine, rather than drugs. Indeed, alternative medicine has many useful and effective recipes that help speed up the recovery process of the gastric mucosa and eliminate such unpleasant consequences of the disease as reflux.
However, they should be used only in conjunction with the main therapy. Mixed treatment, including the use of drugs and traditional recipes, has a beneficial effect on the stomach. Therefore, before starting self-treatment, it is necessary to undergo an examination and consult a specialist.
- Before eating drink 1-2 tablespoons of chamomile decoctions. It relieves inflammation and is suitable for treating gastritis with any acidity.
- Drink on an empty stomach half a glass of potato juice.
- Drink on an empty stomach a tablespoon of olive oil.
- To cook from the seeds of flax kissel and porridge, drink several times a day.
- Cook decoctions of plantain or calendula.
There are many other recipes for the treatment of gastritis.But if you do not want to use pills and strive to get rid of the disease with herbs, then the scheme and recipes should be chosen only by a doctor. But remember that only drug therapy can cure you of chronic gastritis.
When detecting Helicobacter pylori, the patient must undergo antibiotic therapy. The only way to forget about the unpleasant symptoms of the disease. Treatment usually lasts from 7 to 10 days, depending on the degree of gastric damage. During this period, prescribed medications that eliminate harmful bacteria.
If during the course of treatment the symptoms indicated earlier in the history of the disease persist, then the specialist can review the standards of therapy.
Additionally, tablets are prescribed to maintain the natural microflora of the stomach. These are useful prebiotics.
If you have chronic gastritis, treatment should be carried out only on a strict diet. The doctor, depending on the history of the disease, will recommend adherence to several rules:
- Refusal of fried, fat and smoked,
- The use of fermented milk products with reduced secretion of the stomach,
- Refusal refusal,
- The use of mucous porridge and liquid soups.
For any, including mixed, gastritis useful walks in the fresh air. After eating, it is worth walking a little along the street (preferably in squares or parks) so that the food is better absorbed and the disease does not progress.
With increased secretion of the stomach and reflux patients can relax in the resorts with mineral spring. During remission, you should visit the famous sanatoriums located in Yessentuki, Borjom, Jermuk. This has a positive effect on the history of the disease, allows you to forget about unpleasant symptoms and long-term treatment with pills. Mineral water therapy is useful not only for reflux, but also for mixed gastritis.
Also, patients can go to the Dead Sea, where clean air can eliminate the symptoms of the disease with mixed gastritis. If you can not relax in the cleanest corner of the world, then you should go to any other resort, where there are forests and untouched nature.
It is important to remember only one rule: you can relax at the resort only during the period of remission, if the symptoms are not pronounced. Conducted in the sanatorium therapy must be indicated in the history of the disease.
How to speed up the healing process
To forget about the symptoms of gastritis and reflux forever, you need to give up bad habits and forget about alcohol. Alcohol is contraindicated in diseases of the intestinal tract, as well as smoking. Many do not have enough exposure for giving up bad habits, which stops the healing process. In this case, you can forget that the drugs will help to completely eliminate the unpleasant symptoms and consequences of the disease.
If there is no possibility or desire to quit smoking, then you can not quit, but be sure to reduce the effect of nicotine on the stomach. To do this, you can not smoke on an empty stomach and immediately after a meal. And during the examination the doctor must indicate this factor in the history of the disease.
Chronic gastritis is a rapid disease that manifests with various symptoms of the intestinal tract: nausea, pain, weight loss. For the treatment of the disease, doctors use certain standards that allow modern drugs to cure the disease forever. The patient is required to have a detailed description of the symptoms and compliance with the recommendations of the specialist.
Symptoms of chronic gastritis
In the case of chronic gastritis, the symptoms in adults may differ depending on whether the disease leads to an increase or decrease in the acidity of the gastric juice.
- Patients with chronic gastritis with increased acidity have such symptoms - abdominal pain, belching sour, heartburn, feeling of heaviness in the stomach after eating, constipation.
- Chronic gastritis with low acidity is characterized by burning pains after eating, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, belching, flatulence and rumbling in the abdomen.
Among the common symptoms found in patients with chronic gastritis, irritability, weakness, and fatigue are most common. Sometimes there is a heartbeat, pain in the area of the heart, blood pressure decreases.
A long course of gastritis can lead to a gradual weight loss, frequent occurrence of intestinal disorders, diarrhea, constipation. Extensive damage to the gastric mucosa leads to the fact that the body ceases to fully absorb the nutrients obtained from food. As a result, a person develops anemia or anemia associated with a lack of vitamin B12 in the body.
On the background of the disease can be observed: reduction in blood pressure, headaches, pallor of the skin, numbness of the extremities, disruption of the heart, dizziness, up to fainting. Depending on the form of the disease will directly depend on how to treat chronic gastritis, and what diet should be followed.
Symptoms of exacerbation of chronic gastritis
A patient suffering from gastritis should immediately seek medical help in identifying the following symptoms:
- Pain in the upper abdomen - long, aching, aggravated after a meal, in some cases, subsides after vomiting. The pain is associated with damage to the mucous (inner) lining of the stomach and with its walls stretching to gastric contents.
- Headache, weakness, palpitations, fever - signs of intoxication accompanying the inflammatory process of the gastric mucosa,
- Dry mouth after vomiting,
- Excessive salivation
- Unpleasant taste in the mouth,
- Weight loss,
- Appetite disturbances,
- Nausea or vomiting
- Diarrhea or constipation
- Blood in the feces (with erosive gastritis),
- Belching, etc.
The severity of these symptoms is individual for each patient. Pain, in the period of exacerbation of chronic gastritis, may disturb the patient constantly or appear periodically. In some patients, it appears only on an empty stomach or before meals, and for someone it appears some time after eating.
To prevent the exacerbation of chronic gastritis, it is necessary to adhere to therapeutic nutrition. It is recommended to eat food often, in divided portions, to avoid overloading the stomach. It is also worth quitting smoking and drinking alcohol as factors affecting the secretory function of the stomach.
During the period of well-being with increased or normal gastric secretion, you can take courses of mineral waters, which inhibit gastric secretion: "Luzhanskaya", "Borzhomi", "Slavyanovskaya", "Moskovskaya".
Periodically, according to the recommendations of the doctor, it is necessary to take drugs such as vikalin, gastrofarm, de-nol.
FGDS is crucial for clarifying the diagnosis.
Diagnosis of chronic gastritis:
- The study of the secretory function of the stomach.
- Analysis of feces: possible presence of hidden blood, as well as undigested food residues with reduced secretory activity of the stomach.
- A general blood and urine test will help detect signs of inflammation in the body during exacerbation of chronic gastritis (tests will be normal in remission), hyperchromic anemia in chronic autoimmune gastritis.
- EGD and biopsy specimens for histological examination. If it is impossible to perform FGDs, an X-ray examination of the stomach with barium contrast can be performed, but this is less informative.
- Detection of Helicobacter pylori microbe. The “gold standard” is the histological examination of biopsy specimens with their color according to certain patterns and subsequent microscopic examination. A biological method is also used (sowing a microorganism on a nutrient medium).
- Manometry: with reflux gastritis, an increase in pressure in the duodenum up to 200-240 mm water column is detected. (in normal - 80-130 mm water column).
Differential diagnosis is performed with gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer, diaphragmatic hernia, esophagitis, tumors.
Treatment of chronic gastritis
Treatment of the disease in adults includes a whole range of procedures, and therapy is selected individually for each patient, taking into account the type of gastritis, the stage of the disease and the presence of associated diseases. Patients are usually treated on an outpatient basis, but sometimes, for severe exacerbations and the occurrence of complications, hospitalization may be required.
First of all, it is necessary to eliminate external factors, the impact of which has led to the development of the disease, such as smoking, drinking alcohol, poor nutrition.
Therefore, in chronic gastritis, diet therapy is the basis of treatment, and the diet is also selected depending on the type of impaired gastric secretion.
Diet for chronic gastritis
One of the main elements of the treatment of the disease is diet. In the period of exacerbations of chronic gastritis it is impossible to do without a sparing diet. It was at this time that malnutrition causes pain, aggravates dyspeptic disorders characteristic of this disease. It is necessary to reduce the likelihood of irritation of the inflamed walls of the stomach.
Depending on the nature of the secretory function of the stomach, an adult should follow one of two diets.
- In case of gastritis with normal or increased secretion of gastric juice, diet No. 1a is prescribed (up to 7 days), then diet No. 16 (up to 14 days), and diet No. 1 is stretched for 3 months. If these diets are observed, the patient is given food in a liquid or shabby form, and vitamins (ascorbic acid, riboflavin) are also added. Alcohol, juice, coffee, strong tea, spicy fatty foods, canned food, beans, peas are prohibited.
- In chronic gastritis with insufficient gastric secretion - compliance with diet number 2 is shown. Nutrition in this case is fractional, the food is taken in a well crushed and boiled form, and the intake of coffee, tea, juices, vegetable Navar, meat broths, meat and fish of low-fat varieties stimulates the secretory function of the stomach. Due to insufficient production of gastric juice, foods that are rich in fiber, namely grapes, radishes, dates, as well as spicy, smoked and very salty foods, cold drinks, and pastries are excluded from the diet. Whole milk, cream, buckwheat and barley cereal, legumes, pickled vegetables, mushrooms, carbonated drinks are not recommended.
When remission (significant weakening or disappearance of signs of the disease) dietary recommendations become less stringent:
- The exception is spicy, fatty, fried, smoked food, canned food, carbonated drinks.
- Food should be grated, steamed, boiled or stewed. Excludes fresh fruits and vegetables. From fruit can only bananas.
- Food should be warm - 40-50 ° C. Cold and hot food is excluded.
- The amount of fluid you drink should be at least 1.5 liters per day.
- Any products should be chewed thoroughly.
- You can not allow overeating and haste, snacking "on the go" and eating dry meal.
- Alcohol and smoking are excluded.
Sanatorium-resort treatment is indicated for patients with chronic gastritis outside the acute stage. It is held in the resorts of Arzni, Borjomi, Jermuk, Dorokhovo, Druskininkai, Yessentuki, Zheleznovodsk, Krainka, Mirgorod, Pyatigorsk, Truskavets and others.
How is the examination of patients?
Before choosing a drug therapy regimen, gastroenterologists conduct a comprehensive examination of patients using a special (international) protocol. Diagnosis includes laboratory and hardware tests.:
- Blood tests, feces and urine.
- Histological and cytological examination of biological material.
- Ultrasound of the digestive tract.
- Additional hardware diagnostics is prescribed if there is suspicion of ulcerative pathology or malignant processes.
What determines the success of treatment?
The effectiveness of drug therapy aimed at combating this pathology directly depends on the chosen regimen, which must meet the following requirements:
- Use of antibiotics that are resistant to an acidic environment.
- Competent selection of drugs that can destroy pathogens.
- The use of drugs local action (only on the gastric mucosa).
- Prescribing medicines that are rapidly eliminated from the body.
The duration of the course of drug therapy depends on the form of the pathology and the severity of its course. If there are no pronounced symptoms indicating the presence of problems (caused by Helicobacter) in the adjacent organs of the gastrointestinal tract, the treatment takes up to 4 weeks.
Observation by a gastroenterologist after therapy
After the passage of drug therapy, patients will have to be in the dispensary for 3 years. After this period, laboratory and hardware studies are conducted, the results of which are indicated by the gastroenterologist if the patient can be removed from the register.
When a patient is in remission, he needs to follow the following recommendations of a gastroenterologist.:
- Follow a gentle diet.
- Take medicinal decoctions made from pharmacy chamomile, celandine, yarrow, St. John's wort (in the fall and spring, the course of herbal medicine should be 3 weeks).
- Undergo physiotherapy procedures: mud therapy, hydrotherapy, electrophoresis, currents (dynamic).
- Drink mineral water (course 3 weeks, repeated after 3 months).
- Take vitamin complexes.
- Undergo a spa treatment (3 months after relapse).
What can be involved in the treatment of gastritis of the stomach for adults?
In the treatment of such a pathology as gastritis specialists can be used the following schemes:
- Drug therapy is designed for 2 weeks. Every day, the patient should take in the morning and evening such drugs as Clarithromycin (500 mg), Amoxicillin (1000 mg), Omeprozole (1000 mg).
- Therapy involves taking 4 drugs and is designed for 2 weeks (drugs are taken 2 times a day). To Clarithromycin (500 mg), Amoxicillin (1000 mg), Omeprozol (1000 mg), bismuth (tri-potassium citrate) is added in a daily dosage of 240 mg.
- Prescribed bismuth drug (tricalia dicitrate) in a daily dosage of 240 mg, and tablets Nifuratela (400 mg), Amoxicillin (1000 mg). The course of therapy is 2 weeks, taking medications 2 times a day.
- The scheme of drug therapy, designed for the elderly. Amoxicillin tablets (1000 mg), omeprozole (1000 mg), a bismuth-based preparation (tricalium dicitrate 240 mg). The course is 2 weeks, taking medications 2 times a day.
- If a patient has an allergic reaction to antibiotics, then Omeprozole (1000 mg) is left in the scheme, to which propolis solution (water) is added.
What can be involved in the treatment of gastritis for children?
When treating young patients with gastritis, gastroenterologists are assigned the following tasks::
- Normalize mucosal functionality.
- Reduce the aggressive effects of acid.
- Restore all processes in the digestive tract.
Drug therapy, which is prescribed to children, involves taking such drugs.:
- Bismuth preparations.
Regardless of which scheme was chosen for treatment, all categories of patients must follow the diet, otherwise it will not be possible to transfer the disease to a state of stable remission:
- All products that may cause active production of gastric juice are excluded from the daily menu.
- Prohibited smoked foods, pickles, fried, spicy and fatty dishes.
- Food should have the consistency of mashed potatoes. If there is no kitchen equipment at home, you can grind food with a grater.
- Products must undergo heat treatment. They can be boiled, baked, stewed or steamed.
- Protein should be present in the patient’s diet, but only low-fat meat and fish are allowed (turkey and rabbit meat will be the ideal option).
- During the diet, patients should drink herbal teas, self-made compotes and jellies, as well as mineral water without gas.
Why the selected scheme of drug therapy may be ineffective?
Sometimes there are situations in which the patient who has undergone treatment does not feel any improvement. According to the results of laboratory and hardware research, experts conclude that the chosen scheme of drug therapy did not bring the expected results.
The reasons for treatment failure include the following factors.:
- The patient was prescribed drugs to the components of which he has an intolerance.
- The resistance (primary) of the Helicobacter pathogenic bacterium is expressed.
- Antibiotics were not included in the scheme, the dosage was incorrectly assigned, the patient violated the time period for their administration, the drug was chosen incorrectly.
- Helicobacter circulation is present within the patient's family, against the background of which re-infection has occurred.
- Gastroenterologist was selected ineffective scheme of drug therapy.
Health Schools for Kidney Disease Patients
Faced with renal pathology, the patient is lost, it is not easy for him to deal with complex medical terminology, the patient loses the ability to self-control his condition. To prevent this from happening, special health schools have been created, where patients are taught not to succumb to difficulties, give necessary recommendations, talk about how the nephrology service works, and most importantly, give hope for recovery.
Goals, themes and objectives of patient education in schools of health
It is not enough for a nephrologist to carry out diagnostic and therapeutic measures when managing a patient with renal pathology. Nephrology departments and centers should establish schools to educate patients. At the Rostov State Medical University, under the auspices of the Rostov Regional Society of Nephrology, such a school of health for patients was established in 2002 and has been successfully operating for more than 10 years.
Organization of health schools is needed to increase the level of patient knowledge in the anatomy, physiology and pathology of the urinary system, the acquisition of skills for maintaining a healthy lifestyle and proper nutrition, as well as self-control of the pathological process, allowing to increase the level of motivation in the quality management of renal pathology.
The goals and objectives of the school of health are:
1. Formation of the patient dominant for active participation in the process of recovery.
2. Training in the methods of diagnosis and correction of risk factors for the development and progression of renal pathology, such as arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus. obesity. hyperuricemia, hypercholesterolemia, etc.
3. When organizing schools for patients, the basics and rules of therapeutic nutrition for kidney diseases, as well as dietetic nutrition, aimed at reducing body weight in obesity, must be covered.
4. The work of the school of health is based on teaching methods of self-control of GFR, blood pressure. body mass index, urine analysis using test strips, water balance.
5. Informing about the methods of renal replacement therapy and nutritional characteristics, water balance control, approaches to drug and non-drug treatment.
6. One of the objectives of the school of health is to become familiar with the concept of chronic kidney disease and the strategy to combat renal pathology.
7. Presentation of information on the organization of the nephrology service, the activities of professional and patient nephrology societies and the possibilities for obtaining qualified assistance.
Health school classes are held four times for an hour and a half:
Lesson number 1 - “Basics of the structure and functioning of the urinary system. The main symptoms of kidney disease.
Lesson number 2 - "The concept of chronic kidney disease, risk factors for the development and progression of renal disease."
Lesson number 3 - "Approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of kidney disease."
Lesson number 4 - "Basics of renal replacement therapy."
It should be noted that these topics in the school health classes are intended for patients requiring conservative therapy and healthy people with risk factors for renal pathology. In the case of training in schools of health of patients receiving hemodialysis treatment or having a renal transplant, as well as suffering from chronic renal failure (CKD stage 3-4), a different school structure is required.
Topics of school health for patients suffering from chronic renal failure and preparing for the start or receiving renal replacement therapy:
Lesson number 2 - “Basics of renal replacement therapy. Methods, indications for use and preparatory procedures.
Lesson number 3 - "Features of nutrition and maintenance of water and electrolyte balance on hemodialysis."
Lesson number 4 - “Control of blood pressure, hemoglobin and correction of disorders of calcium-phosphorus metabolism”.
strong> School "Healthy kidney" for patients with a renal transplant or patients preparing for a kidney transplant operation:
Lesson number 1 - “Basics of the structure and functioning of the urinary system. The concept of chronic kidney disease, risk factors for the development and progression of renal disease.
Lesson number 2 - “Basics of renal replacement therapy. Methods, indications for use. Kidney transplantation - indications for use, technology, and features of the preparatory phase. "
Lesson number 3 - "The use of immunosuppressive therapy, classification and manifestations of the rejection crisis, prevention, tactics in the rejection crisis."
Lesson number 4 - "Control of blood pressure, hemoglobin, correction of disorders of calcium-phosphorus metabolism, eating disorders, infectious complications in patients with a functioning renal transplant."
School of Health: Training Plan for Patients with Kidney Diseases and MTO
strong> The patient education plan for the school of health is represented by three main blocks:
The information block is presented in the form of a short lecture of 30 minutes in which the specialist provides information on the topic of the lesson in a popular manner. Next is the interactive block, which represents the answers to questions of interest to patients. Important are the simplicity and availability of information materials for persons who are not medical professionals. The practical unit in terms of school health classes is aimed at teaching patients the practical skills that are necessary to maintain the function of the kidneys and the whole organism.
It is extremely important to provide multimedia accompaniment in the form of static and animated illustrations, as well as short films, when drawing up a plan for educating patients in schools of health. School materials should be submitted on the division’s website, and opportunities should be created for discussion in electronic forums.
Logistics (MTO) activities of the school of health for patients with kidney disease:
- audience for 25 people
- multimedia projector,
- computer (laptop)
- a set of teaching materials on paper,
- flip chart
- the site of the department (center) with the presence of a page filled with materials for patients
- electronic demonstration materials.
School Health Performance
Having defined the goals, objectives and themes of the school of health, the work should be organized in such a way that all patients have the opportunity to undergo training in it. To this end, it is necessary to take into account a number of criteria indicators. In particular, the indicator of enrollment, the indicator of ability to self-control.
The enrollment rate is analyzed for all patients treated in the department or attached to the institution. It is calculated quarterly and annually and is the ratio of trained patients to the total number of patients treated. This indicator should not be less than 70% for inpatients and less than 30% for outpatients.
The self-monitoring ability score is calculated for patients who are selectively trained in schools. For example, during the year ten schools were conducted, patients trained in two of them were included in the survey to calculate an indicator of ability to self-control. This indicator is calculated on the basis of the ratio of the sum of positive answers, each of which is taken as a unit, to the number of questions. Individual indicators of all patients are summarized and divided by the number of patients.
Currently, the most promising is distance education of patients. It allows you to reach a large amount of people living far from the nephrology center and / or not having the opportunity to complete this training in person. Moreover, when forming answers to the questions posed on the blogs of specialized school websites, dozens of patients will be able to read them, increasing their level of knowledge.
Gastritis of the stomach in children
As a distinctive feature of children's gastritis is a sudden manifestation against the background of quite normal child health. As soon as the first symptoms become noticeable, it is recommended to send the child to the doctor. Sometimes it seems to parents that such manifestations are suitable for food poisoning, but this is not so. If time does not pay attention to the condition of the child, then the consequences can be serious.
In most cases, children will cry a lot and become restless, which is one of the symptoms of the disease. There may be complaints of pain in the stomach, so the kids grab his stomach. During this period, they are not prone to games and food consumption, including disturbed sleep. Against this background, they become lethargic and not as active as in other situations. In babies, pallor appears on the skin, circles under the eyes can form a blue tint, and a white tint on the tongue.
In many situations, the manifestation of the disease is accompanied by nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, temperature changes and headaches can occur. Such signs can not be left without proper attention, since they will directly depend on how much the child can feel better with the right treatment, and without this, various difficulties can arise. A study of gastric juice, including gastroduodenoscopy, will be required.
There are many reasons that can be considered the main factors contributing to the emergence of gastritis in a child. Based on these factors distinguish primary and secondary types of problems. In the first case, development is possible without any noticeable signs and effects of environmental factors, and another situation presupposes the presence of various diseases against which this type of disease develops.
The causes of gastritis in your children may be:
This problem can have various types of manifestations, among which are considered the main acute, chronic and infectious forms.
The acute form of the disease can develop against the background of the use of everything that will cause irritation of the gastric mucosa. Do not forget that the child lately forms the formation of the gastrointestinal tract, therefore you should not offer children under seven years old food that adults eat, since not all of it is considered healthy and can be digested by the child's stomach. The existing features of children's digestion can not be forgotten. In the adult organism there is hydrochloric acid, which in the stomach suppresses reproduction and prevents the growth of bacteria, which makes it possible to prevent the appearance of various diseases. Do not forget that the child's gastric motility decreases with improper digestion of food, which contributes to irritation of the gastric mucosa.
If we consider acute gastritis, it can manifest itself in the form of not very significant pain in the epigastric region, which is located in the lower part of the sternum.
In addition, there is nausea, vomiting. The problem may be present for two to three days, and in rare cases, seven to ten days. In some situations, no medication is required to cope with the disease.
Not everyone knows that gastritis is a contagious disease. Relatively recently it was thought that all varieties of this problem are not infectious. As it became recently known, this statement is not at all fair. This suggests that a child suffering from gastritis should be given separate dishes for food, separate toys, etc.
If the child has a chronic form of the disease, a comprehensive approach to treatment is recommended. It includes a balanced diet, normalization of the day regimen, a specific set of drugs, physiotherapy and treatment at special resorts. Do not forget about the diet, which is calculated depending on the complexity of the disease.
Diet for children with gastritis
It is recommended this food, which contains a balanced set of products for proteins, fats and carbohydrates. Do not eat fried and smoked products, including banned pickled and spicy food. Offered products are required to boil or steam. Salts should not be offered to the kid, including a carbonated drink of any origin, chips and everything related to fast cooking products that are completely removed from the daily ration. It is recommended to use the fractional feeding system seven to eight times a day. The stomach can not be overloaded with food, especially before bedtime. Last meal should be no later than six - seven o'clock in the evening. Between meals requires a snack in the form of fruit and juice with cookies.
We also advise you to familiarize yourself with the material “What can you eat during gastritis? ".
For each child, it is necessary to ensure a normal day regimen, including a sufficient duration of day and night sleep. When exacerbation is to provide bed rest and do not forget that physical activity should be controlled in a certain way. Drug treatment will have specific directions on which the end result depends.
One of the areas of treatment is the relief of pain. For this purpose, it is common to use painkillers and apply antispasmodics. It is mandatory to reduce the production of hydrochloric acid in the stomach. For this purpose, it is required to use H2-receptor blockers.Doctors prefer to appoint famotidine, because it will not adversely affect the children's body. The pathological influence of hydrochloric acid on the gastric walls is necessarily reduced. Often used Almagel and Maalox.
Next, deal with the elimination of Helicobacter. For this purpose, a special treatment regimen is used, which contains an antibacterial drug in the dosage prescribed by the doctor and corresponds to the age of the patient. The duration of treatment is seven days. After six weeks it takes FGDs to control the situation. Biologics can be prescribed to cope with Helicobacter pylori.
If we consider the physiotherapy treatment method. It is supposed to use electrophoresis using lidocaine for action on the abdominal wall, which allows you to remove pain. Additionally used acupuncture, which is preferred for older children, as well as planned electric. It is extremely important to use special mineral water, which does not contain gas and which will be heated before use. In its day it is required from hundred fifty to two hundred milliliters. Consume in the morning and on an empty stomach.
Spa treatment can help a lot, but it can be prescribed only when complete remission occurs. It is worth using the services of professional full-service sanatoriums, in which there is a collection of natural mineral waters in the general medical complex.
In the spring and autumn, it will be necessary to repeat the course of treatment so that relapses do not appear. This technique helps to prevent major problems associated with the reappearance of gastritis in a child. FGDs are performed once a year to control the gastric mucosa, including a biopsy. In a situation where remission is delayed for a long time, FGDS is performed every couple of years. No less important is the implementation of the rehabilitation of the center of chronic infection, for example, caries or chronic tonsillitis, since these problems contribute to the appearance of exacerbation.
In the case when the baby will complain of an unpleasant sensation in the stomach after some time after eating, it becomes sluggish and irritable, it is recommended that a medical consultation. It should be understood that the diagnosis of gastritis in a child is not an easy task at all, and not all specialists can cope with it, especially since it is difficult to do at home. FGS is used as the main method, which is an unpleasant procedure for which the child should be prepared in advance.
In addition to the standard types of examination, gastric samples are supposed to be taken in which the problem can be examined, and fluoroscopy is also performed. When a thorough diagnosis is made, you can decide on the form of gastritis and how problematic it will be for treatment. If there are alarms, it is not recommended to delay diagnosis and treatment.
In certain situations, an abdominal ultrasound may be indicated. This is a gastroscopy called esophagogastroduodenoscopy. In this case, an endoscopic examination is supposed, when a special probe with an optical system will be inserted into the stomach, which allows the specialist to examine the gastric mucosa and duodenum. There is also such a technique, which is based on the use of a breathing test, can take blood from a vein, and also performs bacteriological culture for the presence of a nutrient medium.
In some cases, the same signs may occur when functional dyspepsia - A common condition, when there is no obvious inflammation in the gastric mucosa, but people experience the same sensations as with gastritis.
Symptoms of the disease occur due to the uncoordinated work of different parts of the stomach and increased sensitivity of the stomach walls to stretching. With functional dyspepsia, pain can be pronounced, disturb sleep and disability.
In most cases, gastritis is provoked by the bacterium Helicobacter pylori (Helicobacter pylori). Infection with it usually occurs through kisses, common utensils, unwashed hands ... For several years after infection, signs of the disease are not observed, but changes in the gastric mucosa are already underway.
According to the World Gastroenterological Organization, more than half of the world's population are Helicobacter pylori carriers.
Causes that cause disease less often :
The treatment of gastritis includes:
The treatment is most often carried out at home, it takes 2-3 weeks.
To control the effectiveness of the treatment, a repeated gastroscopy and an examination for Helicobacter should be performed.
Patients with chronic gastritis should be at the dispensary observation and visit the doctor at least twice a year.