Gastritis

Focal reflux gastritis

Often, patients do not pay enough attention to the disease - reflux gastritis, considering it not serious enough. The initial stages of the disease do not cause anxiety in patients, forcing them to treat manifestations as temporary unpleasant trifles.

Most patients who have experienced the first signs of malaise are deeply convinced that a couple of days later, the discomfort will disappear on its own. However, this attitude to the disease and contains the main difficulty. Behind the mask of seemingly harmless indisposition, a serious illness can disappear, which subsequently leads to the development of a number of terrible complications.

Reflux gastritis - what is it?

Reflux gastritis has the full name, which is usually indicated in the case histories and medical reports of patients. It is called biliary reflux gastritis or type C gastritis.

Consider what is reflux gastritis, how the pathological process develops in the stomach. The content of hydrochloric acid in different parts of the stomach has significant differences. In the cavity of the stomach, where the main food lump accumulates and its treatment with hydrochloric acid occurs, the acid content is higher than in the place where the food goes into the intestine. In the pyloric gastric juice partially alkalized due to the content of bicarbonates. Such a transition is necessary so that food gradually moves into the intestine, where the medium is alkaline.

In a healthy person, powerful muscle sphincters are located between the exit from the stomach and the entrance to the duodenum. This circular muscle closes the transition from one organ to another. The work of the gastric sphincter occurs in healthy people synchronously. Therefore, the digestive processes occur in the body correctly. If a reflex failure occurs in the work of a single sphincter, a return throw into the stomach cavity of semi-digested food with an admixture of bile and duodenal enzymes develops.

Such a mixture is too aggressive for the mucous membrane of the stomach, a delicate organ is not able to cope with such an “onslaught”, as a result there is a chemical burn of the stomach wall and its destruction. At the same time, the reverse pathological process develops - hydrochloric acid is injected in an excess amount from the cavity of the stomach into the alkaline environment of the intestine. This leads to the formation of acid burns of the duodenal mucosa. Brutal chemical effects cause inflammation in the cavity of the digestive tube. Chronic disease is called reflux gastritis.

Varieties of reflux gastritis

There are main types of the disease. The first is called duodenal-gastric reflux. Duodenal-gastric reflux is a pathological condition when the pylorus of the stomach does not close enough. In the duodenum, increased pressure is created, the mucous membrane inflames, degenerative processes develop. The condition is more common.

The second type of reflux lesion is chronic biliary reflux. In this form of the pathological process, there is a disturbance in the work of the biliary system, and the return to the stomach of the bile begins. Impaired motility and harmonious activity of sphincters lead to an increase in pressure in the cavity of the duodenum and biliary tract. What is happening involves the pancreas.

Other types of gastritis are also clinically determined - focal, when a certain section of the mucous membrane is affected and diffuse, when the entire mucous membrane of the organ is involved in the pathological process.Based on the morphological form of gastritis, the symptoms and treatment of varieties differ.

There is another classification of reflux gastritis:

  1. Superficial reflux gastritis. This clinical variety is characterized by dystrophic changes in the surface layers of the epithelium and impaired regenerative processes. With this form there are no lesions of the glands of the stomach. Superficial reflux gastritis is eliminated in a few days with the appropriate start of treatment.
  2. The catarrhal form of gastritis is characterized by inflammation in the epithelial layer, its edema and dystrophic changes. Catarral reflux gastritis does not involve deeper layers in the pathological process.
  3. Erosive reflux gastritis. The process manifests itself in the form of erosion on the mucous membranes. Erosion is called a superficial defect of the mucous membrane without penetration into the muscle layer of the stomach. The erosion process is often complicated by the development of ulcers and bleeding.

There are also acute and chronic processes in the pyloric region of the stomach.

Clinical manifestations

For reflux gastritis, symptoms are described in the following way:

  1. After eating in the stomach is overcrowded.
  2. After eating, the patient feels heavy.
  3. The patient complains of bitterness in the mouth and belching with a bitter taste.
  4. A common symptom is nausea.
  5. Characterized by disorders of the chair - diarrhea and constipation are able to alternate.
  6. The abdominal distention, a meteorism develops.

Symptoms and treatment of duodenitis

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The inflammatory process of the duodenal mucosa, which can lead to problems of the whole adult body, is referred to in medicine as duodenitis. While striking the upper intestinal tract, the symptoms resemble an ulcer, and the lower ones - pancreatitis. Much more often affects men than women. The code in the medical directory - K29.

Accompanied by weakness of the body, pain in the stomach, unpleasant belching, gagging and other manifestations. Acute types of duodenitis are treated with diet, hunger and disappear after a couple of days, the secondary ones become chronic with complications.

Inflammation of the duodenal mucosa in the nucleation stage is accompanied by unpleasant belching, vomiting, and abdominal pain.

Epidemiology

The epidemiology of reflux gastritis is determined by the frequency of surgical interventions on the digestive organs, the use of pharmacological drugs, the prevalence of alcoholism and other risk factors for duodenogastric reflux.

For example, duodenogastric reflux is a consequence of the suturing of duodenal ulcer in 52.6% of cases, cholecystectomy - in 15.5%.

There is evidence that a fourth to 40% of the population suffers from symptoms similar to duodenogastric reflux, but about 5-7% of them suffer from similar complaints. More than 50% of those who applied, found antroduodenal dysmotoric - one of the causes of the development of reflux gastritis.

The overwhelming majority of episodes of chronic gastritis (about 80%) are associated with Helicobacter pylori, up to 15% are cases of autoimmune atrophic gastric inflammation and only about 5% remain for particular types of pathology, including reflux-gastritis.

Classification

Duodenitis is a disease that has a clear classification that helps determine the exact diagnosis and prescribe the correct course of treatment. All types of mucosal lesions can be combined according to several classification criteria:

  1. Flow time:
  • Acute, flowing in combination with gastric manifestations. It is divided into several types, one of which is phlegmonous duodenitis.
  • Chronic, accompanying a person all his life and requiring careful observation and moderately targeted preventive treatment.
  1. Based on the causes, there are the following types of the disease:

Duodenitis is classified by causes, among which there is an unhealthy diet, the consequence of drug therapy and the presence of diseases in other organs of the gastrointestinal tract.

  • The primary cause of which is unhealthy diet and bad habits (smoking, alcoholism).
  • Secondary, its fertile soil are the existing inflammations (gastritis, ulcers) and improper treatment of such type as acutely expressed. Secondary duodenitis is the most common subtype.
  • Reactive duodenitis manifests itself after the use of certain medications and is extremely rare, manifested against the background of gastritis.
  1. The degree of structural changes in the 12 duodenal ulcer implies a division by:
  • Superficial, exciting upper duodenal layers.
  • Atrophic duodenitis contributes to the thinning of the duodenal fibers.
  • Hypertrophic, occurring with excessive tissue proliferation. Hypertrophic type is difficult to influence if it is started or abandoned by doctors.
  • Follicular duodenitis is the growth of papillae in the proximal layer.
  • Erythematous with erosive and ulcerative signs on the walls.

Inflammation in the duodenal gut may be insignificant and affect the entire organ.

  1. By type of distribution in adults occurs:
  • diffuse affects the entire duodenum,
  • focal affects large papilla,
  • distal duodenitis does not change the bulb,
  • proximal, involving the duodenal bulb.

The classification in expanded form will illustrate the causes of manifestations, developmental options, symptoms, necessary tests and acceptable measures for an illness, be it hypertrophic, erythematous or other.

The causes of the primary disease are as follows:

  • poor nutrition,
  • eating a dry meal, which leads to damage to the intestine by hard, hard to digest particles,
  • eating large amounts of spicy, smoked, fried and fatty foods that irritate the gastrointestinal mucosa,
  • vitamin and protein starvation, which is acutely felt during pregnancy, when a double dose is required,
  • smoking,
  • abuse of coffee and alcohol.

Inflammation of the duodenum is rarely a separate disease, accompanying other malfunctions of the stomach and intestines, such as:

Most often, duodenitis occurs due to unhealed gastritis, ulcers, hepatitis and other diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.

  • dyspepsia,
  • gastritis,
  • cholecystitis,
  • Crohn's disease,
  • the ulcer
  • acute hepatitis
  • ischemic bowel disease.

The causes of secondary duodenitis, developing as a result of another disease, may be as follows:

  • infection with the bacterium Helicobacter pylori,
  • stresses associated with surgery or infectious diseases,
  • impaired blood flow to the duodenum,
  • taking nonsteroidal drugs in the treatment of inflammatory processes,
  • duodenostasis - functional disorders of the digestive system, adhesions, obstruction of the duodenum, insufficient peristalsis,
  • pathological processes of the bile ducts (for example, stagnant),
  • chronic diseases of the liver, pancreas, gallbladder, causing imbalances in the totality of enzymes, altering the homeostasis of the internal intestinal environment, which can lead to a deterioration of the protective functions of the mucous membrane.

Most people ignore these signs of a developing disease, which can lead to irreparable consequences.

Symptoms of duodenitis duodenal ulcer

Like any disease, the described process has some symptoms, the main of which are the following:

  1. violation of health and digestion,
  2. partial or complete loss of appetite
  3. general weakness
  4. a focal attack of pain in the navel,
  5. dyspeptic symptoms due to inflammation of the mucous membrane of the duodenum: belching, diarrhea, flatulence,
  6. nausea, vomiting,
  7. pain appears on an empty stomach, at night or 3 hours after eating a meal,
  8. bloody impurities may be observed in feces and vomit,
  9. signs of abdominal discomfort,
  10. due to internal bleeding may develop anemia, which is very dangerous during pregnancy,
  11. slightly increased body temperature
  12. the tongue is dry and has a moderate white bloom,
  13. For an acute attack some tension of the abdominal muscles is characteristic.

Holders of chronic duodenitis, either hypertrophic or erythematous, or any other, can also observe:

  • constant dull pain at the top of the abdomen,
  • increased salivation,
  • heartburn
  • bitter taste in the mouth,
  • during exacerbations headache, irritability, sleep disturbance,
  • increased heartbeat after eating,
  • there is no moderate weight loss or, conversely, weight gain,
  • disorders of the cardiovascular and neuropsychic nature.

These symptoms will give a reason to reflect on the state of health and consult a specialist, because such diseases should not be started.

Diagnosing

Duodenitis has a non-specific clinical picture and, as a rule, is combined with many other diseases of the gastrointestinal tract (for example, an ulcer, chronic gastritis). Taking this fact into account, reliable diagnostics is possible only with the use of instrumental methods:

  • fibrogastroduodenoscopy with biopsy of the intestinal mucosa,
  • pH-metry
  • duodenoscopy
  • impedancemetry.

In some cases, additional recognition methods are required, such as:

  • X-ray of certain areas of the esophagus,
  • feces,
  • blood chemistry,
  • registration of such an indicator as body temperature
  • ultrasound examination, etc.

Analyzes will help reveal the picture more fully.

It should be remembered that the variant of fibrogastroduodenoscopy is dangerous for patients with some sub-species and during pregnancy. Also in parallel, it is recommended to conduct a survey of the related organs of the digestive system.

Design diet with a special diet

First of all, gastric lavage is performed, it may take several days to withstand starvation, and then strict adherence to a therapeutic diet will follow, the main principle of which is a careful effect on the gastric and intestinal mucosa, which includes:

  • five meals throughout the day,
  • small portions
  • steaming or boiling,
  • avoiding cold and hot dishes,
  • consistency - liquid, mushy,
  • the exclusion of spicy, sour, canned, smoked and fried,
  • complete cessation of smoking and alcohol.

But the cure by hunger should not turn into an obsessive idea that only aggravate the situation, and not cure. After 10-12 days, a strict diet should be replaced by a lifelong diet:

  • table number 5p - pancreatitis-like type,
  • table number 2 - if the type of gastric disease manifests itself,
  • table number 5 for people with pathologies of the liver, gallbladder and bile ducts.

There are, of course, other options, since the disease is different for everyone, and it should also be corrected.

Pharmacotherapy

Acutely pronounced syndrome or exacerbation of chronic involves the appointment of symptomatic therapy:

  • antispasmodic drugs are used to relieve pain,
  • the level of acidity of gastric juice decreases antacid drugs,
  • enveloping therapeutic mixtures protects the membrane of the stomach and duodenum,
  • when bacteria are detected, it is worth undergoing a course of antibiotics,
  • if the root cause of duodenitis is clay invasion, a remedy for getting rid of parasites is acceptable,
  • prescribed drugs to stimulate motility.

Duodenitis involves the complex administration of broad-spectrum drugs.

If the diagnosis of chronic duodenitis is confirmed, the gastroenterologist prescribes a long course:

  • anticholinergics to reduce the sensation of pain,
  • antacids with enterosorbents that protect the intestinal membrane from negative factors,
  • dopamine blockers to combat dgr, nausea and gagging,
  • anti-inflammatory, healing agents for tissue regeneration and preventing the spread of the inflammatory process, which can lead to the phenomenon of reflux-duodenitis,
  • soothing infusions aimed at combating neurasthenia, accompanying duodenitis disorder.

Physiotherapy

With a moderate manifestation of duodenitis at the level of auxiliary methods, physiotherapy procedures are attributed:

As an additional measure in the absence of exacerbations, physiotherapy can be prescribed to a patient with duodenitis.

  • warming up the gastric region,
  • ultrasound exposure
  • balneotherapy,
  • electric,
  • magnetic therapy
  • mud, ozocerite and paraffin lotions.

All these procedures contribute to the acceleration of the lymph flow of the digestive system, reduce the level of pain, reduce the chance of development of DGR, reduce inflammation, improve the secretion of the digestive system. But there are several contraindications:

  • heart and blood vessel problems
  • nervous system disorders
  • severe pancreatitis-like type of duodenitis.

The use of folk remedies

Such inflammation cannot be cured completely with herbs, but they can serve as additional measures in the fight against it. The most effective mixtures are recognized as such:

  • aloe-based potion
  • propolis tincture on alcohol,
  • decoction of potatoes
  • natural juices
  • sea ​​buckthorn oil,
  • honey and its derivatives
  • chamomile tea
  • Kissels that cope with surface and erosive duodenitis.

Only the attending physician can tell how to treat duodenitis in women and men. Specialists are based on specific clinical forms, on the basis of which follow-up recommendations are written. Here is a clear example of the occurrence of duodenostasis in the background. The primary task is to eradicate the primary source of poor permeability of the duodenum. You should also eat small portions, eliminating:

  • products that promote the secretion of bile,
  • medicines for bile ligament,
  • medical agents that regulate the correct motility of the esophagus and the appearance of dgr,
  • duodenal intubation will work fine with backwash,
  • operations are rarely possible when the therapeutic effect does not help (for example, during adhesions or ICB).

Complications

The disease is dangerous if it is not detected and treated in time. Accurate predictions of the course of the disease can not identify any doctor, but there are the following preliminary:

Launching duodenitis leads to internal bleeding, obstruction, and the spread of inflammation to other organs.

  • With duodenitis, the source of which is duodenostasis, after the measures to eliminate stagnation, the symptoms of inflammation and cure are attenuated.
  • In secondary manifestations of the acute type, a regular retraining into the chronic form is possible with such complications as:
  1. internal bleeding
  2. the transient state of development having a pancreatitis-like character,
  3. destructive effect on the walls of the duodenum.
  • If you start a chronic manifestation, the disease will begin to progress and entail such negative consequences as:
  1. the spread of inflammation in all layers of the alimentary canal, and sometimes the peritoneum,
  2. development of periododuodenitis,
  3. severe irregular digestion,
  4. the pain will be permanent.

When pregnancy is to be afraid of undesirable consequences for the mother and the fetus.

Prevention

The duodenum is an important component of the digestive system.To maintain her health, it is necessary to conduct regular prevention of duodenitis, especially for girls during pregnancy who are responsible for two lives - for them the disease is doubly dangerous. It includes several points for the prevention of the diagnosis of duodenitis, the main of which are:

  • balanced diet,
  • spicy food restrictions
  • smoking cessation, alcohol,
  • timely detection and treatment,
  • use of drugs in prescribed quantities.

To avoid recurrence of chronic duodenitis, you need:

  • be regularly observed by a specialist
  • do not give up the annual survey,
  • undergo periodic health resort treatment.

How to treat focal atrophic gastritis

Focal atrophic gastritis is a common form of inflammation and lesions of the gastric mucosa, most often is chronic. It is believed that this type of gastritis is the most serious.

The peculiarity of gastritis is that a step-by-step replacement of the gastric mucous tissue by the connective occurs. Because of this "restructuring", epithelium atrophy and dystrophic disorders occur. Gastritis can spread so much into the depths that it also involves the secretory glands (which are also depleted). The same atrophied cells are replaced again by connective tissue cells. The process has a devastating effect on the production of gastric juice, which greatly slows the performance of the stomach.

Areas of atrophy can be localized completely in different places of the body, most often the process begins in the antrum (pyloric) section (on the border with the duodenum). In the above process, important functions are violated, such as:

  • Motility of the stomach.
  • Reducing the acidity concentration of the food lump.

The causes of focal gastritis

Causes of focal gastritis of the stomach

Focal gastritis (as well as its other forms) depends on the influence of both internal and external stimuli. The most negative impact of external factors, such as:

  1. Penetration and effects on the gastric mucosa of Helicobacter pylori microbacteria (helicobacteriosis). Because of this pathogenic organism, antral and atrophic gastritis most often develops.
  2. Incorrectly compiled diet and diet, the use of harmful products, overeating, the abuse of very spicy dishes. Due to the fact that a person does not observe proper nutrition, an erosive, erythematous and catarrhal type of destruction of the gastric mucosa may occur.
  3. Harmful habits that develop into chronic addiction (alcoholic beverages, smoking, narcotic substances) are the most frequent causes of atrophic and subatrophic gastritis.
  4. Long-term and unbalanced use of drugs (without consulting a specialist - a gastroenterologist) - hormonal, painkillers, and more.
  5. Stress and depression (often occurring in women).

External causes that stimulate the onset of this disease include:

  • Heredity.
  • Failure of exchange processes.
  • Duodenogastric reflux (improper passage of the masses of the duodenum into the stomach).

Types of focal atrophic gastritis

In order to determine the form of focal gastritis, you need to know the nature, duration of the disease and the degree of inflammation. Referring to this, they identify the main types of pathology, which are listed in the table below.

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Symptoms of atrophic focal gastritis

Symptoms of atrophic focal gastritis of the stomach

It often happens that people suffering from focal gastritis in the early stages do not notice this.With the progression of gastritis classic symptoms are observed and the treatment of the pathology should not be delayed. The most striking signs of gastritis of this form are:

  • Heartburn.
  • Small or sharp pains.
  • Diarrhea.
  • Lactose intolerance.
  • Nausea.
  • Lack of appetite.

Such a phenomenon as a “polished tongue” can also be observed; it is, as it were, all covered with a dull-white, thick coating.

How to treat atrophic focal gastritis?

Treatment of focal gastritis

In view of the fact that the degree of danger depends on the form of gastritis, it is necessary to find out the diagnosis as soon as possible and to carry out the necessary medical treatment for focal atrophic gastritis. First, you need to find out the cause that caused gastritis and completely eliminate the influence of this harmful factor, for example, alcohol or a pathogen. After that, a certain diet is prescribed, which excludes fatty, fried, smoked, salty foods.

To clarify the pathology of the patient must pass tests. If the suspicion of Helicobacter Pylori infection is confirmed, the doctor is obliged to prescribe antibacterial agents as soon as possible, removing the pathogenic microorganisms from the patient's body. The correct method is to conduct a gastroscopy, which will allow you to know exactly at what stage the patient is on the way to recovery.

A number of medications are also used, such as: “No-shpa” (from acute pain), “Zeercal” (from vomiting, nausea, loss of consciousness), “Mezim” (during the whole therapy), “Abomin” (to speed up the secretion juice), "Pariet" (antibiotic, for the destruction of bacterial flora). It is also an important advice of all experts that you should completely protect your body from stress, anxiety. Get rid of bad habits (alcohol, smoking).

Diet therapy and traditional medicine

What can not be with gastritis

Proper nutrition and dieting is key to successful treatment and speedy recovery, so it is important to follow it and be responsible for your diet. Doctors identified a list of products that are strictly forbidden to use for people with focal atrophic gastritis, these include:

  • Spicy, fried, salty dishes.
  • Mushrooms
  • Fat meat.
  • A fish.
  • Sweet foods.
  • Grapes
  • Fruit in any form.
  • Alcohol, coffee.

  • Sour-milk food.
  • Oils.
  • Cracker.
  • Buckwheat.
  • Boiled vegetables.
  • Berries.
  • A little marshmallow jam.

The main advice - you need to eat wisely, that is, do not overeat! All products should be prepared with a gentle method: steamed, boiled (with the lowest salt content). It is also advised that all products are in a ground state. It is not recommended to drink immediately after the meal, as the liquid destroys the enzymes necessary for the body, that is, the production of gastric juice may decrease - poor digestion of food.

Treatment of focal atrophic gastritis folk remedies

Approximate menu for the day:

  1. First breakfast: hard-boiled egg, sweet tea, a small piece of black bread.
  2. Second breakfast: buckwheat porridge without salt, with savory compote.
  3. Lunch: Rice soup, boiled meat (chicken), compote.
  4. Snack: vegetable puree.
  5. Dinner: baked potatoes with a small amount of boiled carrots, tea, a small piece of marshmallow.
  6. Second dinner: a glass of kefir with a few pieces of biscuits.

Most people do not like to go to the doctors so much that only with acute pains or chronically neglected processes they turn to a specialist. And more than half of these same patients resort to the use of folk remedies. The most common example of the treatment of this disease is herbal decoction and tinctures, vegetable juices, oils, green apples, honey, propolis.

Sea buckthorn oil - taken on an empty stomach in the morning, is a regenerating agent.Juice from plants (plantain) - three teaspoons an hour before meals, is a healing drug. Vegetable juices - restore the previous working capacity of the stomach. Broths of oats - affect the decrease in acidity of the stomach. Before you resort to using one of these recipes, consult a specialist! And it is important to remember that it is impossible to treat focal gastritis (severe forms) on your own!

A person has a cardiac sphincter between the esophagus and the stomach. His task is to prevent the return of food from the stomach back into the esophagus. If it does not function well enough, not only partially digested food can enter the esophagus, but along with it bile and gastric juice. All this provokes gastroesophageal reflux disease.

This disease manifests itself in insufficient closure of the sphincter. As a result, the contents of the stomach can not remain inside the cavity of this organ. The lack of the necessary tone in this zone leads to gastroesophageal reflux disease. The ingestion of gastric juice in the region of the esophagus provokes the development of damage to the esophageal mucosa, at the opening leading to the stomach, ulcers may appear. All this leads to precancerous conditions (intestinal metaplasia or Barrett's esophagus).

Causes of the disease

Cardiac failure may occur due to the action of a variety of factors:

  • malnutrition, overeating,
  • obesity,
  • diseases of the stomach, in particular, gastritis, ulcers, tumors, hypertonia of the muscles of the stomach),
  • meal before bed
  • low mobility
  • hiatal hernia,
  • spasm of the pylorus,
  • increased abdominal pressure that occurs during pregnancy, ascites,
  • increased pressure in the stomach
  • operations involving resection of the sphincter.

Intra-abdominal pressure may develop due to heavy physical labor, heavy loads. Hernia of the esophageal opening of the diaphragm appears from overwork. This can also provoke a failure of the cardia.

Signs of disease

The level of development of pathology is diagnosed by the endoscopic method. There are several degrees of the disease.

  1. First degree Movable cardia does not close completely. At the same time, an open gap should not be more than 1/3 of the total diameter during deep breathing. Among the external manifestations - frequent belching air.
  2. Second degree The cardiac sphincter only closes in half. The gaping may even be slightly larger. Belching becomes painful and very frequent. Occasionally, gastric mucosal prolapse develops.
  3. Third degree The cardiac sphincter does not close at all. In the presence of signs of esophagitis.

The main symptoms in mild cardia include the following:

  • heartburn that occurs at different periods regarding food intake,
  • burning pains that spread behind the sternum, where the esophagus passes,
  • frequent belching with air, as well as with what is in the stomach (if belching is acidic, it means that it contains only the contents of the stomach, if there is a bitter taste, it means bile has been added),
  • nausea, which often ends in vomiting,
  • esophagitis, appearing due to irritation of the mucous membrane, gives abdominal pain, a murmur is observed in the intestine,
  • weakness, dizziness, fatigue.

Treatment and Prevention

Treatment can go in several directions. First of all, it is necessary to treat the underlying disease, which led to the failure of the cardia. It is advisable to follow a diet, do weight loss with obesity. If the cause was ascites, you should try to reduce intra-abdominal pressure.

The insufficiency of the cardiac sphincter at the first stage requires a properly organized diet. Eating should be regularly, several times a day. One portion of the volume should be small.It is necessary to eat according to the schedule, the time of eating should day by day be the same. After eating it is forbidden to lie down for two hours. Walking and sitting is allowed.

The diet is preferably built from soups, semi-liquid kasha, homogenized products. In order not to further irritate the esophageal mucosa, exclude from food all products that can thermally or chemically aggressively act on the esophagus. They also do not accept coarse food in order not to mechanically damage the inflamed mucosa.

Cold and hot is forbidden completely. They drink plain water before eating. Then you should try to focus on vegetables and fruits in nutrition. Banned chocolate, you can not drink alcohol, eat fried, fatty, pickled, salted, smoked. Condiments are also excluded.

Dine no less than 3 hours before bedtime. Even better, in 4 hours. Correction of the state is in compliance with certain rules of behavior:

  • tight, tight clothes are not worn,
  • belts and belts do not tighten tightly,
  • bend less often
  • exercise limits,
  • sleep in an elevated position (so that the head and upper half of the body were higher in level than the lower part),
  • if the work is physically difficult, chemically dangerous, implies inclinations, it must be changed.

The motor activity of the lower esophageal sphincter is regulated by medication. Domperidone, metoclopramide show a high performance in the correction of this state. Preparations with the active substance metoclopramide:

These drugs are taken three times a day. Dose - 10 mg. In severe cases, take four times a day. If the drug is administered intramuscularly, take a dose of 2 ml. Intravenous also injected at 2 ml, do it 2 times a day.

Domperidone has its own characteristics of use. The standard dose - 0, 01. Frequency - three times a day. Take it to food, if the condition is severe, the dose is doubled.

Propulsid (cisapride) is a drug used to regulate gastro-esophageal reflux. The dose of the drug from 5 mg to 10 mg. Take it twice or thrice a day. There is a form of candles, which is also relevant for the treatment of cardia failure. In this case, you need a dose of 30 mg per day. It can be combined with other methods of treatment. You can only take this tool.

Treatment must begin in a timely manner. This disease is very insidious. In the body there are serious consequences, expressed in peptic ulcers, gastroesophageal bleeding.

Video material for the most curious - cardia achalasia:

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Brief description of focal reflux gastritis

In medical practice, there are two main types of the disease. In the first case, inflammation of almost the entire gastric mucosa occurs. In the second case, only certain parts of it become inflamed. It is in this variant that the disease is called focal reflux gastritis. At the same time, it is impossible to determine from the symptoms what type a person acquired. With regard to focal reflux gastritis, it is primarily due to the violation of the functions of the special sphincter. Under normal conditions, he is responsible for ensuring that food gets from the stomach into the duodenum. But with the development of this disease, such a release does not occur, and food already mixed with bile and other enzymes returns back to the stomach. In this case, the walls of the stomach do not have sufficient protective mechanisms. And in this case, salt, bile and aggressive substances begin to corrode the walls of the stomach, which leads to their destruction and inflammation.

Focal reflux gastritis has the following symptoms:

  • sharp pains in the gastric region of the body,
  • constant nausea
  • heartburn,
  • unnatural chair.

At the same time, all these symptoms can simultaneously begin in a person, and only one ailment can be present.

Treatment of focal reflux gastritis

All procedures for the treatment of the disease are prescribed with full visibility of the clinical history. It should be understood that the advertised drugs can not do. In this case, however, specific medications are needed. In addition, the cause of the disease can be bacteria. In this case, it is necessary to undergo a complex of analyzes, and will receive a prescription for special antibacterial drugs.

If, however, focal reflux gastritis has already begun to develop, then simple rules of behavior should be observed. Namely, do not work in heavy and harmful production, adhere to the observance of diet and diet, do not get stress, forget about bad habits.

Symptomatology

In the early stages of reflux gastritis, it can be expressed only as a minor impairment of the functioning of the gastrointestinal tract, which causes patients not to go to a medical facility out of time.

As the pathological process progresses, symptoms of reflux gastritis will be expressed as:

  • pain in the stomach, which will increase after eating or from prolonged fasting,
  • violation of the chair - constipation gives way to diarrhea and vice versa
  • bouts of nausea, which often result in vomiting. At the same time, emetic masses may contain impurities of bile or blood,
  • increase in the size of the abdomen,
  • dry and bitter taste in the mouth,
  • severe heartburn and burning in the chest region,
  • loss of appetite, against the background of which there is a decrease in body weight,
  • feeling of heaviness in the stomach after eating, as well as a rapid saturation of food,
  • signs of general malaise - severe weakness and an increase in body temperature.

In cases of one or several symptoms, it is necessary to seek help from a specialist as soon as possible, and not independently try to eliminate the clinical manifestation of the disease. This can not only aggravate the course of reflux gastritis, but also cause severe complications.

Diagnostics

How to treat the inflammatory process can only determine the gastroenterologist, but only after a complete diagnosis.

Diagnostic measures for such a disease will consist of:

  • studying the history of the disease and the history of the patient's life - this is necessary to find the causes of the occurrence of the disease,
  • perform a thorough physical examination with mandatory abdominal palpation and temperature measurement - to determine the intensity of the severity of symptoms of reflux gastritis,
  • laboratory studies of urine, blood and feces - to assess the state of the functioning of the gastrointestinal tract, as well as to confirm the presence of complications or associated disorders,
  • performing ultrasound of the peritoneal organs,
  • gastroscopy and fibrogastroscopy - to determine the type of inflammatory process, its foci and prevalence,
  • biopsy, which is only necessary if you suspect the presence of an atrophic form of the disease.

After receiving all the test results, the gastroenterologist prescribes individual methods of treatment of the disease.

Despite the fact that the causes of the formation of the disease and its manifestations in each patient may differ, in most cases, the regimen of reflux gastritis treatment will consist of such stages as:

  • medication,
  • physiotherapy,
  • surgical intervention is a radical way to eliminate the disease, which is used in extreme cases,
  • use of traditional medicine
  • diet therapy.

Drug treatment is aimed at eliminating and alleviating the intensity of symptoms. Often patients are prescribed:

  • preparations for the normalization of the acidity of hydrochloric acid,
  • antispasmodics to reduce pain,
  • agents that have a protective effect on the mucous,
  • enzyme based drugs
  • probiotics to normalize the digestive process,
  • vitamin complexes.

Quite often, physiotherapy is used as an auxiliary method of eliminating the disease. Such treatment involves the passage of electrophoresis or phonophoresis. The duration of the course is individual, but should not exceed two weeks. If necessary, physiotherapy is prolonged.

Surgeries are used extremely rarely, the main indications for their performance are:

  • the formation of tumors of both malignant and benign nature,
  • pronounced insufficiency of the gastric pylorus,
  • the presence of deep erosions and ulcers, as well as hemorrhages from them,
  • scarring process.

The complex therapy may include traditional medicine, which include the preparation of decoctions and infusions based on:

  • dandelion
  • mint, calendula and anise,
  • chamomile
  • celery root.

In addition, good results can be achieved through compliance with a gentle diet. Diet is a complete rejection of fatty and spicy foods, salt, vegetable or animal fats. In addition, it is necessary to exclude carbonated drinks and strong coffee. Medical diet involves eating boiled food or dishes cooked in a pair. It is best to eat food at room temperature, in small portions five times a day.

Pain syndrome

With biliary reflux gastritis usually there is no pronounced pain syndrome. If pain occurs, the sensation is dull or puffy and does not bother the patient too much. Increased pain associated with eating. Superficial gastritis manifests itself pulling or aching pain.

Common manifestations

There is a violation of the promotion of food through the digestive tube, the absorption of nutrients deteriorates, leading to the development of protein deficiency, beriberi, anemia. The patient's skin turns pale and dries, hair falls out and nails crumble. Body weight is rapidly decreasing. Bits appear in the corners of the mouth. Subjectively, patients complain of increased fatigue, weakness and lethargy, irritability, frequent headaches.

The listed types of gastritis are potentially dangerous. Do not hope for self-random healing. At detection of the first signs it is necessary to consult with doctors. Independent attempts to take treatment are unreasonably dangerous.

Principles of treatment

Treatment of reflux gastritis should be comprehensive, consistent and regular. For a complete cure of the pathological process, a complex of measures will be required, including the normalization of the work and rest regimen, sparing diet food, medical treatment and possible methods of folk treatment. The gastroenterologist will examine and recommend how to cure the exacerbation and prevent its recurrence.

Mode and diet

  1. Meals should be gentle and fractional. Portions of food are small. Meals are made warm, not hot.
  2. It is supposed to organize the patient a full-fledged mode of rest, walks in the fresh air. Physical activity are dosed. Sleep should be sufficient. If possible, exclude psychological stress.
  3. The treatment is carried out under the supervision of a physician.

Drug treatment

  1. To reduce pain and inflammation prescribed drugs that reduce the production of hydrochloric acid. These include antihistamines (ranitidine, famotidine), proton pump inhibitors - omez, omeprazole.
  2. To protect the mucous membrane from the aggressive effects of the environment prescribe drugs on the basis of bismuth - de-nol, Venter. Drugs reduce pain. De-nol is a drug that has antimicrobial activity against Helicobacter pylori.
  3. When attaching to the pathological process of bacterial exposure, antibiotics are prescribed - amoxiclav, trichopol.
  4. To improve peristalsis and normalize the direction of movement of food masses, a special group of drugs is prescribed. These include tserkula, motilium.
  5. To stimulate the digestive processes and improve absorption, they use preparations based on enzymes - mezim, creon.
  6. To normalize the intestinal microflora and prevent diarrhea or constipation, the patient is prescribed probiotics. Improve overall health and well-being is possible with the help of vitamin complexes.

Surgical treatment

Surgical intervention as a method of treating such forms as erosive reflux-gastritis, is necessary when the process is not treated for a long time, complications have developed. These include malignant cell degeneration, severe pyloric failure, deep bleeding ulcers, and severe scarring. In this case, the question of how to treat reflux gastritis is decided by a commission of doctors.

Folk remedies

Unconventional treatment of folk remedies includes herbal medicine with the use of a variety of medicinal fees. Herbal medicine will not be able to completely replace drug therapy; however, it will be effective in complex treatment. With the help of popular recipes, it will turn out to significantly speed up the rehabilitation processes.

Reception of anti-inflammatory and analgesic fees, regular use of juices from fresh vegetables can have a good therapeutic effect.

With the preventive purpose it is possible to prepare a syrup from dandelion flowers. For its preparation it is necessary to take fresh flowers and place in a glass dish. Pouring sugar, knead the raw material well. It is possible to accept with the preventive purpose and for treatment. No less useful syrup can be made from chamomile. The recipe is similar to the previous one. Store the resulting syrups required in a dark place.

It is useful to take when gastritis juice squeezed from celery leaves. It has anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect. It is necessary to take such medicinal fees only under the supervision of a physician and in conjunction with medical treatment.

If reflux occurs, gastritis, symptoms and treatment are directly dependent on the stage of the disease and on the general condition of the body. If a person has good health, then his body is able to provide a longer lasting resistance to negative factors than the one who leads a wrong lifestyle and has bad habits. This disease is an inflammatory process of a chronic nature that affects the stomach, which is why it cannot fully fulfill its purpose.

Reflux is the reflux of food masses from the duodenum into the stomach. This situation arises if the gatekeeper cannot do his job. In such a situation, not just food remains, but also acid and bile, which are the contents of the body, get into the body. This composition has a negative effect on the mucous membranes of the stomach, which is why inflammation begins to develop, since it is difficult for the body to cope with such aggressive substances.

Varieties of the disease

Reflux gastritis has its own classification, which takes into account the causes and characteristics of the course of the disease. Therefore, in medicine, biliary reflux gastritis has the following types:

  1. Surface. In this case, inflammation affects only the cells of the upper layer or epithelium. Since the masses that have been in the intestine have a negative impact, at this stage the stomach can still produce new cells instead of the affected ones. But the body will not be able to provide such protection for a long time, therefore a person must seek medical help. In the opposite case, the risk of developing cancer is high.
  2. Biliary reflux gastritis (erosive type).According to the name, it can be understood that with such a reflux, erosion and ulcers are starting to appear, which will still be small. But despite this, the patient's condition will begin to deteriorate, he will feel constant pain in the stomach, which is especially aggravated after eating. Such gastritis requires complex treatment, since a delayed reaction is fraught with the formation of ulcers in the stomach.
  3. Atrophic. This species is the most dangerous for health, because due to the progress of the disease the mucous walls of the stomach begin to undergo changes. Such biliary reflux of gastritis in medicine is considered to be the first stage of the formation of cancer tumors. If during this period no active measures are taken, then a malignant neoplasm will appear in the stomach.

Depending on what negative factors constantly influence the human body, this form of the disease may appear. Usually, gastritis tends to gradually change from a mild to a more severe stage. But it may also happen that erosion or even atrophy will immediately appear in the stomach. Here, lifestyle plays a decisive role. If time does not deal with the treatment of the problem, then it can become chronic and then you will have to suffer with such an illness for the whole life.

Nature of the flow

There is another classification that divides the disease depending on where it occurs. It also takes into account the nature of the course of gastritis. Therefore, the disease may be of the following types:

  1. Focal. The inflammatory process can be localized in one particular place of the mucous membrane, which is why it will be called the inflammatory focus. The symptoms here are the same as those of biliary reflux esophagitis: heartburn, belching, sore throat, cough, in extreme cases, vomiting.
  2. Diffuse Unlike the first type, the lesion captures the entire surface of the mucous membrane, but the inflammation is uniform.
  3. Acute. This form occurs fairly quickly and rapidly progresses. The patient feels pronounced symptoms: pain, belching, heartburn. Acute gastritis reflux can occur not only because of nutritional problems, but also because of chemicals and pathogenic bacteria that have somehow entered the body.
  4. Chronic. Unlike the previous species, such gastritis develops slowly, and here the lesion affects the entire mucous membrane of the stomach. The duration of such a process can be measured for years, because of which the patient does not begin to treat gastritis reflux. This is due to the fact that the symptoms here are not as bright as in the previous case, so this form carries a certain health hazard.

To avoid the disease and not think about how to treat it, a person should know and remember what provokes the development of reflux gastritis and first of all revise your lifestyle, since many bad habits cause diseases not only of the digestive system, but also of the respiratory and even cardiovascular.

Causes of reflux gastritis

This pathological condition is provoked by a disorder of the muscle function of the sphincter, which in a healthy person blocks the return of the duodenal contents back to the stomach. Significant risk factors for the development of this condition are gastric resection, gastroenterostomy, cholecystectomy, pyloroplasty and other interventions on the digestive organs, which lead to a pathological disorder in the coordination of motility and evacuation of the contents in the alimentary canal, chronic inflammation of the duodenum, its dyskinesia and hyperkinesis, and dyskinesia and hyperinflation, hyperplasia of the duodenum, its dyskinesia, and dyskinesia and hyperinflation , gastroposis (lowering of the stomach). Reflux-gastritis can develop as a result of taking non-hormonal anti-inflammatory drugs.This is facilitated by the treatment of some other drugs, for example, antibiotics or analgesics, iron and potassium drugs, alcohol abuse. A rather important role in the mechanism of pathology development is assigned to the state of the nervous system - irritable, easily excitable people are considered more susceptible to this disease.

The pathogenesis of reflux in modern medicine is considered as follows:

  • sphincter insufficiency, which allows the contents of the duodenum, without passing through the antral and cardiac sphincters, to fall back into the stomach and esophagus,
  • antroduodenal discoordination - the lack of regulation of the direction of movement of the food lump in the duodenum,
  • surgical removal of the stomach or part thereof, violating the natural obstacle to the reflux of reflux.

Contents that fall back into the stomach contain aggressive substances for it - bile, its acids and salts, enzymes synthesized by the pancreas, lysolecithin, intestinal juice. It activates the secretion of gastrin (the number of cells producing this digestive hormone grows in the antrum), and in the presence of hydrochloric acid, it boosts the dissolution of the fatty components of the cell walls of the mucous gastric epithelium with a dense, in the opposite direction, an avalanche of hydrogen ions.

Permanent damage to the gastric epithelium by the contents of the duodenum causes dystrophy and necrobiotic transformation of its cells. In this case, only the epithelial surface of the stomach is affected, and the process is focal in nature. This form of the inflammatory process is attributed to chemical-toxic-induced gastritis (type C).

There is, nevertheless, a position which makes it possible to doubt the significance of duodenogastric reflux in the mechanism of the development of inflammatory diseases of the gastric mucosa. In fact, the epithelium of the stomach is very resistant to the action of bile and other components of the refluxate. Even prolonged exposure to duodenogastric reflux causes minor damage to its structure. Some clinicians consider the reflux of the contents of the duodenum a protective reaction to the overproduction of hydrochloric acid or regulating the secretory activity of the gastric glands, that is, substitution - in case of its failure. The role of duodenogastric reflux is still in the process of controversy and study.

Symptoms of reflux gastritis

The symptom complex of this form of inflammation of the gastric epithelium is often not commensurate with the extent of its lesion established during the examination. Often diagnosed otherwise, the apparent presence of this form of gastritis may have an asymptomatic course.

However, with severe symptoms, the first signs that you should pay attention to - pain in the epigastrium or the appearance of a feeling of heaviness during or immediately after eating, the appearance of belching from the air, as well as food eaten (regurgitation), heartburn, nausea, flatulence, repulsive bitter taste in the mouth, vomiting of bile. Later, frequent constipation or diarrhea, yellowish plaque on the tongue, loss of appetite and weight loss may join. Over time, there is dryness of the skin, cracks in the corners of the lips (jammed), weakness and fatigue - this is how anemia and vitamin deficiency manifest.

Pain syndrome with reflux gastritis is not a characteristic symptom, but some patients complain of intense burning pain localized in the upper abdomen. It usually appears periodically, is characterized by paroxysmal and is often the result of physical exertion or emotional outbursts and stressful situations.

The above symptoms can be joined by a cough, which is usually considered the prerogative of colds, but in practice it is often caused by gastroesophageal reflux. Cough with reflux gastritis is usually debilitating, it is not accompanied by a runny nose and redness of the throat. It is usually accompanied by other dyspeptic disorders, general weakness and malaise.

Acute reflux gastritis is not a very correct definition, since acute is defined as inflammation of the gastric epithelium due to exposure to one-time intense stimuli. Reflux gastritis develops due to constant irritation of the gastric mucosa with regular casts of intestinal contents. In most cases, it is characterized by an asymptomatic course and is often detected by chance. Therefore, when it comes to reflux gastritis, it is a chronic disease. If in the conclusion of the endoscopist it is said about the acute stage of this disease, then, most likely, the aggravation of gastritis reflux is implied.

Acute reflux gastritis occurred, according to some authors, as a secondary, in patients after operations on the digestive organs. In patients with reflux gastritis in postoperative patients, Helicobacter infection, polypous hyperplasia and peptic ulcers were often detected.

Chronic reflux gastritis occurs in waves, with long latent periods. Severe symptoms (described above) correspond to the acute stage of this disease.

Mild reflux gastritis may be asymptomatic or with mild symptoms, any one symptom may occur, for example, heartburn, flatulence or other dyspeptic manifestations. They can be stubborn and exhausting. Moderate or pronounced reflux gastritis is a conclusion made after gastroscopy, and speaks more about the extent of damage to the gastric mucosa. According to practicing gastroenterologists, the severity of symptoms in this form of the disease does not always correspond to the severity of the gastric epithelium.

Bile is the most studied ingredient of refluxate. Its acids play a major role in the pathogenesis of this disease. Bile acids, which are surface-active substances, have the ability to dissolve the main lipid components of the cell membranes of the gastric mucosa, causing its damage. Pathologies of the biliary system in combination with antroduodenal dismotoric and sphincter apparatus failure lead to regular injections of intestinal contents saturated with bile acids into the stomach. Persistent bile burns cause biliary reflux gastritis. There are no specific symptoms that allow it to be distinguished from other types of this pathology by its clinical manifestations, most often the bile reflux is manifested by belching and heartburn.

Morphological transformations of the gastric mucous membrane due to biliary reflux - enhanced proliferation of mucous cells of the stomach surface and, accordingly, proliferation of the epithelium, puffiness on the background of a moderate inflammatory process. The epithelial surface acquires a basophilic structure, saturated with nucleic acids, with practically no mucus. Epithelial cells undergo dystrophic changes (vacuole degeneration, karyopicnosis), leading to the onset of necrobiosis and the formation of erosion, because the gastric glands located there cease to produce protective mucus. This process may eventually develop into erosive reflux gastritis, which is manifested by bleeding from erosion and the presence of brownish and bloody veins in vomiting and feces.

The lesion of the gastric mucosa, caused by the casting of duodenal contents, is often triggered by inflammatory pathology and hypertension in the duodenum (reflux-gastritis-duodenitis). Pathological changes can be diagnosed only with the help of duodenogastroscopy, as well as with analyzes of biopsy specimens of the gastroduodenal mucosa. This type of gastritis does not have specific symptoms.

Catarrhal reflux gastritis (simple) - usually in this case we are talking about acute gastritis and superficial damage to the epithelium. In this type of disease, the mucous membrane swells, there is a possibility of spreading over its entire surface and dystrophic changes begin in it. Symptoms are usually pronounced, but without specificity.

Superficial inflammation localized in the pyloric part of the stomach, combined with sphincter muscle insufficiency between the stomach and the duodenum, leads to the fact that the food lump, richly flavored with hydrochloric acid, can uncontrollably penetrate into the intestine, burning its bulb and causing inflammation in it, called bulbit The same sphincter insufficiency does not prevent the return of the contents into the stomach. Such unobstructed passage of not fully processed food in one (right) direction and its return tossing ends with a diagnosis of gastritis-bulbit reflux.

As already mentioned, the most frequent damage to the epithelium during casting of duodenal contents occurs in the antrum of the stomach (antral reflux gastritis). It is also called distal reflux gastritis, since the antral part, the pyloric canal and the pyloric sphincter are included in this gastric region. This zone suffers most when refluxing is cast and the first is affected. Focal reflux gastritis develops. If you do not promptly diagnose the disease and do not begin treatment, atrophic changes will subsequently increase. Sometimes there is a mixed reflux-gastritis, in which areas of the inflamed, but still “working” surface of the epithelium, are combined with zones of atrophy of the gastric glands - foci of the hyperemic surface alternate with grayish areas of atrophy.

At the beginning of its development, non-atrophic reflux-gastritis, focal and superficial, and even without symptoms, does not seem to be a very serious disease. The progressive process of proliferation and dysplastic changes lead to the fact that atrophic reflux gastritis develops further. The main distinguishing characteristic of this type of disease is the atrophy of zymogenic and parietal cells in the deep layers of the gastric epithelium and their replacement by the so-called pseudo-pyloric, unable to produce digestive hormones and sulfuric acid. Atrophic transformations of the gastric mucosa, in particular, colonic metaplasia, pose a risk of malignancy.

The same can be said about hyperplastic reflux gastritis, which is characterized by the proliferation of the gastric mucosa and the appearance of cystic, folded or polypous formations.

Erythematous reflux gastritis - this formulation suggests that during a gastroscopic examination it was established that redness of the mucous membrane is observed. This is not a diagnosis, but rather a statement of fact that suggests the existence of gastritis or other gastric pathology. Additional tests are needed for final diagnosis.

Reflux gastritis treatment

The orientation of the therapeutic process in this disease is reduced to the achievement of the following goals - the restoration of normal motor function of the organs of the digestive system and the compensation of the destructive effects of refluxate on the epithelium of the stomach.Reflux gastritis therapy includes drugs of different pharmacological groups: stimulants of the digestive tract motility (prokinetics), inhibitors of acid production (antacids), ursodeoxycholic acid derivatives (hepatoprotectors), cytoprotectors, enterosorbents, and proton pump inhibitors.

Primer (the active ingredient is itopride hydrochloride) is a modern prokinetic of selective action that enhances the propulsive motility of all organs of the digestive tract and prevents the development of duodenogastric reflux. The action of this drug is due to stimulation of the release of endogenous acetylcholine and an increase in the time of its activity, which is achieved by inhibiting the activity of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase. This tones the muscles, including sphincter muscles, leads to an increase in the duration of contractions of the smooth muscle tissue of the stomach and intestines, accelerates the promotion of the contents of these organs in the right direction.

Absorption of the active substance (approximately 90%) occurs in the intestine, the highest plasma concentration is fixed after hour from the moment of Primer administration. Suction does not depend on food intake. Metabolism of this drug is carried out in the liver with the help of flavone monooxygenase without participation of cytochrome P450, which makes it possible to avoid negative interaction when combined with other medicines, the metabolism of which is realized by the enzymes of the CYP450 system. Primer has almost no toxic effect on the liver, does not cumulate and does not pass through the blood-brain barrier. Inactive metabolites of the active ingredient are excreted in the urine, for a complete elimination of one dose, ½ days is sufficient.

The recommended single dose of 50 mg, it is taken every eight hours. The highest permissible dose - 800mg per day. The duration of treatment is from two to three weeks.

Not prescribed to pregnant and lactating women, aged 0-11 years, people with bleeding, perforation, obstruction of the digestive organs, sensitization, elevated prolactin levels.

Hydrotalcite - medicine used in case of increased acid formation. The active ingredient of the same name is aluminum-magnesium-hydroxide-carbonate-hydrate - neutralizes excess hydrochloric acid in gastric juice, normalizes acidity and protects the epithelium of the stomach from the damaging effects of hydrochloric and bile acids. It has a layered-mesh structure with a specific effect. The outer layer of the tablet containing the active ingredient comes into contact with the acid. As soon as the acidity decreases, the release of aluminum and magnesium ceases until the next moment of its increase, when the next layer of active ingredient reacts. This allows for quite a long time, in comparison with other antacid agents, to maintain the acidity of gastric juice that is close to normal. In addition, hydrotalcite has sorbent qualities, absorbing bile acids and lysolecithin. It is taken orally. Dosed in 0.5-1g with an interval of at least one hour after eating and at night, three times four times a day, children over six years old - 0.25-0.5 g. It interacts with some antibiotics and other drugs, so if necessary, combined with the need to withstand a time interval of at least an hour. Contraindicated at the age of 0-5 years, with exacerbations of renal pathologies, sensitization to the components, pregnant and lactating women.

Therapy in combination with inhibitors of acid formation is more effective than monotherapy with each of these drugs.

For example, simultaneous reception with Rabeprazole. This drug with the same active substance inhibits acid production by reducing the enzymatic activity of hydrogen-potassium adenosine triphosphatase on the surface of layering cells.The effect of the use depends on the dose and reduces both the main and the stimulated release of hydrochloric acid. It has weakly alkaline properties, is quickly absorbed and cumulated in the occipital cells. The effect of the drug is somewhat potentiated with the daily intake of one pill, a stable effect occurs on the fourth day of administration, after the end of therapy, the acid production is normalized after two or three days. Metabolized by the cytochrome 450 system, which should be considered when prescribing drugs with the same metabolism, does not interact with hydrotalcite. It has many side effects, with long-term treatment, the condition of patients must be monitored. Contraindicated in children, pregnant and lactating women, sensitized persons. It is prescribed in dosages from 10 to 20 mg, per day - once. Duration of treatment from one to two months.

The use of therapeutic agents in the regimen of reflux-gastritis, the active component of which is bear bile (ursodeoxycholic acid), is based on its cytoprotective action. It converts toxic bile acids into the hydrophilic form, and the aggressiveness of the refluxate decreases. The clinical condition of the patient improves, endoscopy shows a decrease in the lesions of the epithelial surface of the stomach. The efficacy of using ursodeoxycholic acid derivatives both experimentally with reflux gastritis and with Helicobacter-positive gastritis was proved experimentally, which is important because the damaging effect on the mucous membrane with a combination of duodenogastric reflux and infection of this bacterium increases synergistically. These drugs have a positive effect in the treatment of patients with operated digestive organs (stomach, gall bladder).

These properties have the drug Ursosan (synonyms Ursofalk, Ursakhol, Holatsid). When ingested, the active ingredient is well absorbed by the tissues of the digestive organs, combines with the sulfur-containing amino acid taurine and aminoacetic acid. Ursodeoxycholic acid accumulates in the bile, the level of accumulation depends on the state of the liver. Metabolism of the active ingredient of the drug occurs in the intestine and liver, is excreted mainly with feces, a small part - bile. Contraindicated in inflammatory processes in the biliary organs, chronic hepatic and renal dysfunctions, under the age of five years and in the first three months of pregnancy (in the remaining six - for health reasons). Not assigned to lactating women. Patients of childbearing age must be reliably protected. The drug can cause side reactions, often from the digestive system, and affect the properties of other drugs, in particular, antacids, which include aluminum and magnesium.

Ursosan is taken once a day, at night. Dosing and duration of the course is individual. The standard dose is calculated as follows: per kilogram of body weight - 10 mg of the drug. Treatment may last up to 12 months.

Therapeutic measures to eliminate duodenogastric reflux and regeneration of the gastric mucosa also include dopamine receptor antagonists, preferably Domperidone, as the safest drug in this group, which does not overcome the protective barrier between the blood and brain tissue and does not lead to motor dysfunction. It tones the muscles of the pyloric sphincter, stimulates the motility of the stomach, accelerating the evacuation of the food bolus from it, normalizes the consistency of muscle contractions of the stomach and duodenum. The drug can be prescribed to pregnant and lactating women for health reasons.It is not assigned to persons sensitized to it, with bleeding, perforation, obstruction of the digestive tract, elevated levels of prolactin. May cause a number of side effects and negatively interact with certain medications. Available in the form of a solution, suspension, suppository and tablets.

Dosages for adults: one or two tablets (with severe symptoms) three times or four times a day before meals. Rectal suppositories from two to four units (60 mg each).

Dosages for children:

  • solution (1%) - at the rate of one drop per kilogram of weight from three to four doses per day,
  • oral suspension - 0,25 ml per kilogram of weight three times a day,
  • ½ tablet twice a day with a body weight of 20 to 30 kg
  • more than 30 kg - one tablet twice a day,
  • for the age group 0-2 years, suppositories 10 mg - from two to four units,
  • for the age group of two years and older, 30mg suppositories range from two to four units.

The treatment regimen may include antibacterial drugs (when detecting Helicobacter pylori infection), enzymatic agents and probiotics, depending on the symptoms and condition of the patient.

In chronic, especially untimely diagnosed prolonged course of reflux gastritis, avitaminosis develops. Vitamins are not absorbed in the diseased organs of the digestive system, especially with regard to B vitamins, which are involved in blood formation. Their lack leads to anemia, manifested by fatigue, dizziness, disorders of the nervous system and psyche. The lack of retinol (vitamin A) inhibits the regeneration process, ascorbic acid - lowers the immune barrier. With increased acidity, vitamin E may be useful, which helps to reduce its level. This is all taken into account when prescribing a treatment regimen, the doctor may prescribe a course of individual vitamins or vitamin-mineral complexes, which should be taken according to the recommendations of the doctor and the instructions attached to them.

Physiotherapy treatment is also included in the therapeutic scheme; standard procedures are electrophoresis or phonophoresis with drugs. Conducted in order to relieve pain and inflammation.

Amplipulse therapy restores muscle motility, a beneficial effect on gastric epithelium and secretory function.

Acupuncture activates the functions of the digestive organs, acting on them through active points on the human body.

UHF-therapy (electromagnetic decimeter waves), UHF-therapy (ultra-high frequency) - improve blood circulation, stimulate healing and eliminate swelling and pain.

It should be noted that physical procedures are contraindicated in cases of erosive and ulcerative lesions and the presence of tumors.

Alternative treatment

Traditional medicine is very rich in recommendations for the healing of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. However, you should not replace drug treatment with traditional methods. They can help in the complex treatment and restoration of the body, but always after consulting with your doctor.

So, the popular treatment of heartburn, which is one of the main symptoms of reflux gastritis, consists in such simple procedures:

  • chew a small piece of calamus root and swallow it, you can drink it with water,
  • take on the tip of a teaspoon powder of calamus root and swallow,
  • drink a tablespoon in the morning and evening before eating fresh juice from celery root,
  • chop the roots, leaves and seeds of angelica, brew with boiling water one pinch of powder, drink like tea, after five minutes.

Well helps flaxseed, a decoction of which envelops the gastric mucosa and protects it from the damaging effects of refluxate. The recipe for making an infusion from it is usually published on the packaging box.In case of reflux gastritis, another method of preparation is recommended: pour ½ cup of cool water with a tablespoon of seeds and leave until the seeds swell and mucus, then strain and drink before eating.

You can prepare a vegetable mixture for the infusion: two tablespoons of flaxseeds, the same amount of medicinal chamomile, one tablespoon of calamus root powder, licorice, lemon balm leaves and plantain. Place two tablespoons of vegetable raw materials in an enamel bowl, brew boiling water (400 ml). Then on the water bath a quarter of an hour, let stand for two hours, strain and bring the infusion with boiled water to 400 ml. Take ½ cup four times a day before meals.

Herbal treatment of this disease is not complete without chamomile drug. It is present in almost all popular recipes in combination with other herbs and as a mono-phytopreparation. Even Greenfield tea with chamomile, according to reviews, helps with gastritis.

However, chamomile (by itself) is recommended for gastritis with low acidity, because it stimulates the production of gastric juice. However, in combination with yarrow and hunter, chamomile is recommended for use in the form of herbal tea from approximately equal parts of all these herbs. They drink it in the mornings and evenings, adding light floral honey.

Folk healers offer the following recipe for chamomile syrup, fresh flowers which are placed in layers in glass or enameled dishes, sprinkled with layers of sugar. Layers need to be thoroughly suppressed before extracting the juice. Dissolve a teaspoon of the expressed syrup into ½ cup of water and drink three times during the day. They do the same with dandelion flowers, only a tablespoon of expressed syrup is diluted just before drinking ½ cup of water.

For pains and bilious vomiting, infusions of a smoked medicinal are recommended: two tablespoons of herbs are brewed with 500 ml of boiling water and left for about an hour under the lid. It is taken at intervals of two hours until the symptoms disappear, then it is recommended to switch to tea from yarrow, St. John's wort and chamomile. However, smoke in addition to choleretic properties has the ability to increase the secretion of gastric juice.

Recipes of traditional medicine were used for a long time, when the treatment was purely symptomatic, and no one knew about the acidity of the stomach. The use of decoctions and infusions was determined empirically. Reflux gastritis is often accompanied by increased acidity, although with a long course and atrophic changes in the gastric epithelium, the acidity decreases with any form of gastritis. Therefore, before being treated with folk remedies, it is good to analyze your diagnosis, consult with your doctor and take into account all aspects of your condition. Many recipes contain mixtures of herbs that enhance and often neutralize each other’s effects. The answer to the question: what herbs are forbidden with reflux gastritis is ambiguous and depends on several components, in particular, on acid formation. For example, chamomile, smoke, plantain, calendula, dandelion is recommended for gastritis with low acidity. However, they are also present in the mixtures of herbal preparations recommended for high acidity. Their anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties, as well as vitamins, micro-and macronutrients, essential oils, flavonoids and other usefulness are suitable here. Peppermint has the ability to reduce acid formation, narrow-leaved willow herb is used for any secretion, the dried marsh activates gastric motility. Herbal extracts have a milder effect than medicines, their active ingredients are rapidly excreted and do not have a cumulative ability. In short, they are universal.

Homeopathy, appointed individually at the reception of a practicing homeopath, can lead to persistent remission even in advanced cases, but this requires patience, change of habits and eating habits. Classical homeopathy uses one drug for treatment, and only an experienced doctor will be able to choose it correctly. After all, with reflux, more than twenty drugs are used, including Baptisia, Brionium, Hamomilla, or the same chamomile drug, not bypassed and homeopaths. Many drugs are prescribed when any symptoms predominate, for example, Conium is prescribed to patients with excessive acid production, with predominance of heartburn, acidic regurgitation, frequent nausea, Kali bichromicum with a feeling of heaviness in the upper abdomen, reduced appetite and meteorism, Argentum nitricum - relieves severe stomach pain, Robinia - burning pain, severe heartburn, regurgitation, sour belching.

If it is impossible to visit a homeopath, you can, together with your doctor, choose the complex drugs offered in a homeopathic pharmacy or a Heel drug.

For example, Gastrikumel-Heel, designed to cure various dyspeptic disorders and inflammatory processes in the stomach. The complex remedy includes: Argentum nitricum, Arsenicum album, Pulsatilla, Nux Vomica, Carbo vegetabilis, Antimonium Krudum, the most popular remedies for indigestion and the digestive tract. This drug can be used both independently, especially in the initial stages of the development of the disease, and in combination with medication. Gastrikumelya tablet 30 minutes before a meal or an hour later, put under the tongue and dissolve until it dissolves. To remove an acute attack, you can dissolve every quarter of an hour a pill, but make sure not to take more than 12 pieces a day. Treatment is continued for two or three weeks. Repeated intake is possible if prescribed by a physician. The drug can be taken from the age of three, the future and nursing moms - only under medical supervision. We can not exclude the development of allergic reactions.

In the case of pronounced acute inflammation of the gastric mucosa can be combined with Traumel C, to accelerate the recovery process. Traumel is able, through the activation of its own immunity, to quickly stop the inflammatory process, edema, soreness, hyperemia.

When the digestive organs are impaired, Gastricomel-Heel can be used in combination with Nux vomica-Gomaccord drops, which eliminate the effects of undesirable effects on the gastric mucosa of toxic substances, tone up muscles and activate motility, not only of the stomach, but also of the entire digestive canal from top to bottom, eliminate the symptoms of dyspepsia.

Perhaps a combination with Mucosa compositum, especially with erosive and ulcerative lesions of the mucous membrane of the alimentary canal, to enhance motility and normalize coordinated organ movements, eliminate bleeding, speed up the regenerative process. If necessary, the combination is complemented by Traumel.

Dosing of the combined reception is prescribed by the attending physician. If necessary, all these tools can be combined with anti-helicobacter therapy.

Diet with reflux gastritis

In the treatment scheme for this disease, one of the main roles is assigned to dietary nutrition, without which achieving a positive result is simply impossible. Since the treatment is most often outpatient, the patient independently organizes a diet based on medical recommendations. The organization of food and a set of products used should contribute to the normalization of the motor activity of the intestine and reduce acidity, not irritate the gastric mucosa and not provoke reflux.During the exacerbation period, table 1 can be taken as a basis with some adjustments, leaving the main principle - food should be cooked without frying and baking with a crisp crust, not greasy, not spicy, not hot and not cold, nutrition - fractional (≈ 5-6 meals per day, the portions should be small). It is advisable to eat by the hour, food, if possible, should be freshly prepared. During the meal should not rush, you must learn to chew food well. Eating in the evening is last recommended about two hours before going to bed.

Eliminated from the diet:

  • drinks - containing alcohol, caffeine, mint, carbonated, kvass,
  • any fried foods, smoked meats, pickles,
  • soup, borscht, okroshka,
  • products that cause fermentation and flatulence - beans, beans, cabbage, black bread and other,
  • fatty foods (rich, sandy, puff pastries, dairy, non-fat foods even with low fat content, fatty meats and poultry, fish, ice cream, chocolate),
  • fresh bread
  • any preservation and semi-finished products,
  • hard-boiled eggs
  • broths - meat, fish, mushroom, saturated vegetable,
  • sour, unripe fruits and berries rich in fibrous structures, in the acute period it is better not to eat vegetables and fruits without heat treatment in general,
  • ketchup, hot sauces, mustard, horseradish, pepper, mayonnaise,
  • salt - limited (no more than a teaspoon per day).

The easiest way to create a menu for reflux gastritis for each day of the week, based on the list of allowed products, trying to ensure that the same dishes are repeated no more than two times. And stick to it, in the course making some adjustments. Basically, the patient's diet will include:

  • well boiled cereals (“mild” option) made from buckwheat, oatmeal, rice, can be made from skimmed milk, (occasionally, for a change, you can use other cereals),
  • pureed soups from vegetables with the addition of cereals, you can chopped meat (but not meat broth),
  • boiled meat, minced in a meat grinder or in a blender, steam (stewed) meatballs, meatballs, soufflés from dietary - sirloin pieces of beef, turkey, chicken, rabbit,
  • non-fatty varieties of fish, steamed, boiled, stewed,
  • mashed potatoes of boiled, stewed or steam vegetables, vegetable stews from well stewed and chopped vegetables,
  • non-sour fat-free cottage cheese and dishes prepared from it - lazy dumplings, casseroles, low-fat hard cheese (grated, grated, later - slices), fresh skim milk,
  • eggs (no more than twice a week), boiled soft boiled eggs, steam omelets, soufflés,
  • wheat bread is not fresh, crackers, biscuits,
  • butter, vegetable, a small amount of sour cream (added to the dish),
  • desserts in the form of jelly, souffle, baked apples, marmalade, pastila from the store (1-2 slices a couple of times a week),
  • compotes, jellies, herbal teas.

The daily ration can be made as follows:

  • in the morning it is best to eat porridge boiled in water or skimmed milk with a small piece of butter, you can add a soft-boiled egg or meatball to it, drink herbal tea (it is better to drink tea first, and then eat),
  • for a second breakfast toast of white bread, sprinkled with grated cheese, a decoction of rose hips,
  • you can dine with vegetable pureed soup, boiled macaroni with the addition of chopped meat, compote of dried fruit,
  • the afternoon snack will make a baked apple, a glass of jelly with galetny cookies,
  • You can have dinner with lazy dumplings, washed down with chamomile tea,
  • an hour and a half before bedtime drink ½ cup of milk with galetny cookies or crackers.

Recipes for reflux gastritis

On the porridge is based on any diet food, the most suitable of them - buckwheat and oatmeal. They are rich in vitamins and minerals, are well absorbed, contribute to the rapid evacuation of the intestinal contents. You can eat them every day several times.Rice porridge is also completely digestible, it can be used to make a mucous membrane during the exacerbation period by adding more water than necessary, however, a small amount of fiber is not very suitable for patients who suffer from constipation. Other cereals can also be consumed, but less often, for example, once a week. Since reflux gastritis, as a rule, is accompanied by increased acid production, it is possible to have breakfast with cereal from flax seed. It is quite easy to prepare it: grind flax seed in a coffee grinder, take three to five teaspoons of the flour produced, pour boiling water over it, stir to a thickness of fresh sour cream, salt, close the lid and wait at least five minutes. Starting the day with this porridge, get the effect - two in one: nutrition and therapy.

Any porridge It goes well with boiled chopped meat (just mix), oatmeal - with berries and applesauce. With the recurrence of the disease - apples boiled or baked, when the condition improves - you can use raw - ripe and sweet (without skin).

Meat dishes prepared from tender loin pieces, peeled from the skin and tendons. For example, you can make meatballs with buckwheat. In the minced meat add egg and raw, sorted and washed, buckwheat, salted, to form meatballs. Put them in one layer in a saucepan. Pour hot water almost to the top of the meatballs, add into the water coarsely chopped onions, a tablespoon of sour cream, and salt. Cover with a lid, put on the fire, simmer for about an hour on low heat or put in an oven for an hour (t = 150 ° C).

  • Fish cutlets: make minced white fish of the cod family (hake, cod, white and blue), after removing the skin from it. Add an egg, chopped onion and carrots in a blender or a fine grater, a little semolina (do not overdo it, the stuffing should be tender), salt it. Let stand for a while (20 minutes). You can cook the chops in a double boiler, you can put in a saucepan, add a little uncut onion, carrots, two tablespoons of vegetable oil, about two fingers of hot water to the bottom, add gravy and stew in the oven or on the stove until ready (≈30 min).
  • Lazy dumplings: mix cottage cheese with an egg and a small amount of sugar, add flour so that the dough is molded. Make small balls of it (3 cm in diameter), boil them in boiling water. Serve with sour cream or butter.

Classic dumplings can be made from unleavened dough consisting of flour, water and salt (without eggs, as this product has limitations). The filling can be cottage cheese, mashed potatoes, finely chopped apples without peel, in the summer - fresh berries.

  • Jelly: cook a rich compote of permitted berries and / or fruits. Strain, dilute with instant gelatin or agar-agar in the proportion indicated on the package. Pour in bowls, cool - put in the fridge. It is strongly not recommended to make jelly from store bags of food paint, flavor substitutes and preservatives.
  • Stuffed beets: boil beets (bake), peel and remove the inside, giving it the shape of a cup, which is filled with the mixture, slightly sugared with the addition of 10 g of melted butter, consisting of boiled rice, finely chopped apples without a skin, finely chopped dried apricots (prunes, raisins - to taste and portability). Beet cups pour sour cream and bake in the oven. You can serve with sour cream.

Therapeutic activities

Alone diet with reflux gastritis will not help restore the health of the digestive system. It requires an integrated approach, which may include:

  • control of the diet
  • lifestyle change: rest should be alternated with moderate physical exertion,
  • 8 hour sleep
  • maximum avoidance of stressful situations
  • routine inspection every six months.

How much the patient will be attentive to all the instructions of his treating physician will determine how quickly he gets rid of reflux gastritis.

In addition to the above measures, the patient will have to undergo drug therapy. It is necessary in order not only to stop the disease itself, but also to discourage the reasons that led to this situation. According to the results of the diagnosis, the doctor may prescribe the use of such drugs as:

  • Ranitidine and Omeprazole - contribute to the control of the production of gastric juice,
  • De-Nol and Venter - have an enveloping effect on the mucous surfaces of the stomach, which is why irritating factors can not cause such damage, as it was before,
  • Amoxiclav - this drug is prescribed in the event that the onset of the disease results from an infection, as it is antibacterial,
  • Motilium and Itomed - contribute to the improvement of gastrointestinal motility,
  • Mezim, Festal and Creon - a category of drugs that include auxiliary enzymes,
  • Linex and Bifiform - are prescribed for dysbacteriosis or problems with defecation,
  • Vitrum and Alphabet - auxiliary vitamins.

Immediately it should be indicated that the duration of the reception and the dosage itself are calculated by the doctor, and in each case it will be individual. The specialist focuses on the form and development of the disease, takes into account the general condition of the patient. In no case should self-medication be used, since each medicine in large quantities is poison, and this is not to mention the side effects.

Extra help

When gastritis is manifested, treatment is necessary complex. Therefore, doctors often prescribe physiotherapy to their patients. It comes as an addition to the main treatment. But here it is worth knowing that such procedures are permissible only in the remission stage and if the patient does not have ulcers and especially tumors.

For patients with erosive reflux gastritis, the help is to undergo electrophoresis and phonophoresis.

Such procedures carefully refer to the damaged mucosa. On average, the duration of physiotherapy takes 2 weeks, but this is with a noticeable improvement in the state of the stomach.

Reflux can be eliminated with the help of surgical intervention. The operation is necessary in cases where the patient has a tumor in the organs of the digestive system. Also, this method is used in case of obvious insufficiency of the pylorus, in the presence of deep erosions and ulcers, which provoke severe blood loss. Such problems may even cost the patient life. Therefore, if the doctor offers surgery, then you must agree to this.

Types of disease

There are several other types of gastritis, in addition to acute and chronic (considered common). These include:

  • erosive,
  • non-erosive,
  • reflex,
  • antral,
  • catarrhal and others.

In addition, there is a mass of diseases associated with gastritis, in particular, reflux, as well as duodenitis (resembling in its symptoms many diseases of the gastrointestinal tract).

Reflux - a painful process that develops due to the release of bile from the duodenum into the stomach.

Sometimes types of gastritis have peculiar names in alphabetical order: type A, B, C, and so on. Different types of ailments are caused by different causal factors and exhibit different symptoms.

Identifying the exact type of ailment helps in choosing the right method of treatment.

The acute form is considered one of the most well-known varieties of the disease. This is a painful inflammation of the gastric wall that occurs suddenly and can also be accompanied by bleeding in it.

The latter is mainly due to tissue damage triggered by acid secreted in the stomach.

Bleeding usually lasts less than 24 hours.The main cause of the acute form of the disease are bacteria of the genus Helicobacter pylori, which account for 90% of all cases of the disease.

This type of gastritis can also be the result of eating spoiled food, stale fish or meat, bones, plastics, chemicals, drugs, or toxic plants.

Viral infection is also considered a probable causative factor.

On the other hand, the chronic form of the disease is often found in older people. It implies a long-term process of inflammation of the gastric mucosa.

This inflammatory condition of the upper part of the digestive tract in certain situations can last for years.

Among the many possible factors that provoke the appearance of the condition, bacterial infection with Helicobacter pylori, which is the main cause of the disease, is isolated.

During the time of chronic gastritis, the sphincter located above the stomach does not do its job properly, and as a result, the acid rises up the esophagus.

Such processes lead to pain in the chest, as the acid irritates the esophagus wall. There are two main types of chronic disease: erosive and non-erosive.

Erosive type of disease can be described as erosion of the gastric wall caused by the weakening of the protective mechanisms of the mucous membrane.

Although alcohol abuse does not provoke the development of the chronic form of the disease, alcohol can gradually destroy the mucous membrane layers, and small doses of alcohol can stimulate the release of hydrochloric acid.

Also, uncontrolled intake of NSAID drugs may eventually lead to the development of peptic ulcers (sometimes reflux of the disease).

The overall symptoms of the erosive form consists of:

  • damage to the stomach wall,
  • the appearance of pain in the abdomen,
  • weight loss

Reflex gastritis (caused by nerves) is another common type of disease that is the result of a serious illness or injury.

It is most common in patients in intensive care units, especially among those with respiratory failure, sepsis (infection in the blood), renal failure, severe burns, peritonitis, or neurological injury.

These problems usually do not directly affect the stomach.

Atrophic gastritis - This is a chronic form of the disease, in which the mucous membrane of the stomach becomes very thin (atrophy occurs), and most of the cells that produce digestive acids and enzymes are lost.

This type of disease usually arises due to a specific autoimmune problem, in which antibodies attack the body’s own tissues (autoantibodies).

It can sometimes also be caused by certain infections or occur after a partial gastrectomy (surgical removal of a part of the abdomen).

Type A or autoimmune atrophic gastritis develops when antibodies produced by the body mistakenly attack and destroy the cells of the stomach.

When they attack the gastric mucosa, they cause pernicious anemia and deep hypochlorhydria.

Type A is also called autoimmune metaplastic atrophic gastritis due to changes caused by the corresponding types of epithelial cells.

The atrophic type of disease (type B) is multifocal and forms when bacteria of the genus H. pylori cause infections in the gastric wall.

In addition, it is induced by external factors, for example, diet and food intake. In this situation, it is called metaplastic atrophic gastritis.

Antral gastritis is related to the chronic type of gastritis, and its second name is antral gastritis of type B.

Antral disease occurs due to inflammation in the gastric mucosa due to the activity of pathogenic microorganisms and bacterial agents.

The antral type of the disease is marked by an increase in the degree of acidity. This, in turn, is a good basis for diagnosing intragastric pH.

Symptoms of such a disease as antral gastritis, manifested by painful sensations in the stomach area.

Reflux (other name - reactive, reflux) gastritis is a specific inflammatory process in the gastric wall.

Reactive or reflux gastritis is observed when the functional ability of the so-called pylorus, which promotes the reflux of the duodenum into the stomach, is disturbed.

Reflux gastritis symptoms and diet treatment depend on the definition of the form of the disease and the cause of its occurrence.

Inflammation in the stomach sometimes extends to almost the entire mucous region, but in other cases it covers only a specific section in the digestive tract.

If the mucosal lesion is local, often doctors define this condition as “focal gastritis”. This type of disease (focal) does not have any characteristic external manifestations.

Focal type of the disease is found quite often in adults of any age group.

The focal type of the disease may be accompanied by manifestations of nausea and vomiting, epigastric pain and heartburn, fragmentarily affects the gastric mucosa.

Catarrhal ailment - a state of inflammatory nature in the gastric wall, provoked by the uncontrolled use of heavy food (fried, fatty, spicy), or a variety of spices and spices.

It is also called alimentary (ordinary food gastritis). Often the catarrhal type is found in adolescents who eat sandwiches and refuse full breakfasts and dinners, as well as those who do not follow a normal diet.

Biliary gastritis is related to inflammatory or dystrophic diseases affecting the gastric mucosa.

The biliary type of the disease (as well as reflux) can be triggered by the injection of the duodenum into the stomach, which contributes to the appearance of changes in the gastric environment.

The symptomatology of this pathology is manifested in the form of the development of dyspeptic disorders in the digestive system and the appearance of periodic characteristic pain.

It is recommended to treat such a disease comprehensively and under the supervision of a doctor in a hospital.

The concept of "superficial" means that the inflammatory process affects only the upper layers of the cells of the gastric mucosa.

Pathological process refers to the first stage of the disease and signals its appearance in the form of not too intense symptoms.

The surface type of the disease often manifests itself in a rather classical way, and in certain situations it does not show the symptoms at all.

Most often, superficial gastritis is detected spontaneously, for example, during a routine examination, as patients systematically try to avoid visiting the doctor’s office.

In addition, there are diseases associated with gastritis, such as duodenitis, which is an inflammatory disease in the duodenum, during which particularly vulnerable parts of its mucosa may be affected.

Duodenitis may be accompanied by symptoms such as general weakness, stomach pain, heartburn, belching, nausea, and vomiting.

If the exact type of gastritis is detected at an early stage, then this disease is easily treatable.

However, if the disease is not detected in a timely manner, it may contribute to more serious complications and negative consequences.

Watch the video: Barretts Esophagus, Intestinal Metaplasia of the Cardia-Mayo Clinic (December 2019).