Dysbacteriosis - a condition caused by a violation of intestinal microflora associated with changes in the species composition of bacteria. In dysbacteriosis, the number of beneficial bifidus and lactobacilli is reduced, and the number of pathogenic (pathogenic) microorganisms increases. Dysbacteriosis is associated with many diseases of the digestive system, prolonged or uncontrolled use of antibiotics, immunosuppressants, exposure to harmful environmental factors. Manifested by constipation, diarrhea, poor appetite, sleep, abdominal pain, skin rashes. In severe cases, the bacteria of the gastrointestinal tract can be detected in the blood, which threatens the development of sepsis.
Functions of normal microflora
- trophic function - providing the body with nutrients
- energy function - delivery of ATP, energy supply of intestinal epithelium,
- peristaltic function - chemical regulation of peristalsis,
- regenerative function - participation in cell differentiation during the renewal of the intestinal epithelial lining,
- participation in maintaining ionic balance,
- the formation of gas composition in the intestines,
- participation in biochemical processes in the intestines - deactivation of poisons, activation of drugs, the formation of biologically active substances, neurotransmitters, signal markers, etc.,
- protective function - participation in local immunity, production of immunoglobulin, cytoprotection, ensuring the resistance of the epithelium to pathogenic and carcinogenic factors, seizure of viruses, reading the genomes of pathological microorganisms,
- participation in the metabolism of proteins, fats, bile acids and many other important components of nutrition, the synthesis of vitamins of group B, pantothenic acid,
- maintaining the constancy of the physico-chemical environment of the intestine.
Causes of dysbiosis
Intestinal dysbacteriosis is almost never the primary pathology, but develops as a result of certain abnormalities in the functioning of organs or systems, or under the influence of taking drugs and substances that negatively affect microorganisms.
- Iatrogenic intestinal dysbacteriosis occurs due to the medication that suppresses the vital activity of microorganisms (antibiotics, sulfa drugs, hormonal drugs, cytostatics, etc.). Also dysbacteriosis can be the result of surgery.
- Improper diet, lack of necessary components in the diet, its imbalance, the presence of various chemical additives that contribute to the suppression of the flora, malfunctions in the diet, a sharp change in the nature of the diet.
- Psychological stress of various kinds.
- Infectious bowel disease.
- Other diseases of the digestive organs (pancreatitis, hepatitis, gastritis, etc.).
- Immune disorders, endocrine diseases, metabolic disorders.
- Violation of biorhythms, acclimatization.
- Violation of intestinal motility.
Symptoms of dysbiosis
- Dyspeptic syndrome - diarrhea (sometimes alternating constipation and diarrhea), flatulence, bloating, belching and unpleasant taste in the mouth, rumbling in the intestines.
- Many (especially children) suffering from intestinal dysbiosis, have not previously characteristic allergic reactions to food. Reactions can be either of a normal allergic nature (urticaria, pruritus, bronchospasm, angioedema) and intestinal (liquid foamy stools, sharp pain in the abdomen, nausea up to vomiting, lowering blood pressure).
- Malabsorption syndrome - impaired absorption in the intestines of various essential nutrients is manifested by deficiency of metabolic substrates - protein-energy deficiency, various hypovitaminosis, first of all, as a rule, in the group of vitamins B, anemia, impaired ion balance, calcium deficiency, etc.
- Intoxication of the body - weakness, lack of appetite, low-grade fever, headaches.
- Immunity reduction - an increase in infectious diseases (ARI, ARVI, herpes), fungal diseases.
Diagnosis of dysbiosis
Diagnosis of intestinal dysbiosis in gastroenterology begins with the identification of characteristic dyspeptic disorders on the basis of complaints, conduct a physical examination. When diagnosing, as a rule, the symptoms of dysbacteriosis are manifested against the background of the primary pathology, or it is present in the anamnesis. Be sure to pay attention to the current treatment with drugs that suppress the microflora.
The most specific method of laboratory diagnosis of intestinal dysbacteriosis is the analysis of dysbacteriosis and baccal bacillus. Dysbacteriosis of the small intestine is diagnosed using bacteriological examination of scraping or aspirate the jejunum, but because of the complexity of this technique, this technique is used only in cases of doubtfulness of other diagnostic criteria. Indirect signs of intestinal dysbiosis can be demonstrated by coprogram, biochemistry of fecal masses, gas-liquid analysis.
Treatment of intestinal dysbiosis is carried out by a gastroenterologist and involves therapy in several areas - pathogenetic treatment (eradication of the cause of the disease), correction of the resulting pathological state of the digestive system, removal of the acute symptoms of the disease, strengthening the protective properties and restoring the normal biocenosis in the intestine.
- Pathogenetic therapy is aimed at primary pathology, and also includes measures to restore the motor functions of the intestine, the removal of the resulting inflammation, replacement enzyme therapy.
- Patients with intestinal dysbacteriosis are shown diet No. 4 (modifications depending on the condition), contributing to the normalization of intestinal activity, reducing the activity of putrefactive processes. Nutrition should be carefully balanced in terms of nutrient composition and energy content. Be sure to respect the balance of the content of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, supply the body with vitamins and trace elements, a sufficient amount of fluid. It is necessary to pay attention to the diet, its compliance with biorhythms.
- Inclusion in the diet of foods containing dietary fiber, live bacterial cultures.
- Correction of microflora composition with the help of selective nonabsorbable antibacterial drugs (rifaximin), intestinal antiseptics (nifuroxazide), preparations containing antagonistic cultures of pathogenic intestinal flora, bacteriophages.
- Immunomodulators are used to restore immunity (echinacea preparations, nucleic acids, etc.).
Restoration of normal microflora is carried out using:
- probiotics (preparations containing live cultures of the necessary microorganisms),
- prebiotics (substances that promote the growth and reproduction of beneficial flora),
- synbiotics (complex preparations containing both microorganisms themselves and the components necessary for their development).
Prevention of dysbiosis
Prevention of intestinal dysbacteriosis for healthy people implies proper nutrition in compliance with the regimen, the presence in the diet of foods containing beneficial microorganisms (fermented milk products, substances containing bifidus and acidophilic bacteria, food and beverages, based on starters). Mandatory balance of nutrition in the composition of the necessary body substances, vitamins and trace elements.
For infants, the best prevention of dysbiosis is breastfeeding, which forms normobiocenosis and immunity of the child. Breast milk has the optimal composition of prebiotics for the development of healthy intestinal microflora.
Since intestinal dysbacteriosis most often occurs due to the use of antibacterial drugs, in such cases, the prevention of this disease is the rational use of pharmacological agents, a comprehensive approach to the treatment of infections — the prescription of drugs according to the antibioticograms, a certain degree of resistance of a particular pathogen to antibiotics, parallel reception preparations for the correction of intestinal biocenosis.
With long-term antibiotic treatment, it is imperative to include in the therapy a special diet containing foods rich in beneficial bacteria, antifungal and immunostimulating, as well as antihistamine therapy.
What is dysbacteriosis?
Dysbacteriosis, or dysbiosis, is an imbalance of microflora in the intestine. It is very difficult to detect this type of disease, since its symptoms can be confused with other pathologies of internal organs.
But there are signs that will allow you to make an accurate diagnosis in a short time and begin treatment. How does intestinal dysbiosis manifest in adults? What are the symptoms in children? We will understand further.
Causes of the disease
Causes of dysbiosis usually accompany another disease (pancreatitis, gastritis, and others). Often, a violation of the mode of eating comes from travelers.
The main causes of dysbiosis are as follows:
- use of antibiotics without control,
- the presence of intestinal diseases
- previous gastrointestinal surgeries,
- reduced immunity
- failure to comply with the constant mode of eating. This also includes excessive intake of flour, fatty, salty products with insufficient intake of fermented milk products and fiber.
Symptoms of the disease at different stages
There are stages that include certain symptoms of dysbiosis:
- Stage 1 characterized by small violations of microflora. This is usually due to the start of taking antibiotics, as well as a change in the composition of water or food. Bright signs of dysbiosis do not occur. A person may be disturbed, for example, only by rumbling in the stomach. If the body gets used to a new food or the course of antibiotics is stopped, then the normal ratio of intestinal microflora is often restored on its own,
- Stage 2 characterized by more noticeable symptoms, which include vomiting, nausea, an unpleasant smell and taste in the mouth, and stool disorders. The above symptoms of dysbiosis at this stage can be confused with signs of the development of another disease. In this case, you need to visit a doctor so that he chooses the most optimal method of treatment of dysbacteriosis,
- Stage 3 involves the urgent treatment of dysbiosis, as the body is already weakened by the constant impact on the walls of the stomach and intestines with a large number of harmful microorganisms. The most common symptoms at this stage are sharp abdominal pain, as well as other signs - rumbling, diarrhea. There are components of undigested food in the stool,
- Stage 4 develops when the treatment of dysbiosis is absent or it is not intense enough. At this stage, harmful microorganisms are practically crowding out beneficial ones, which leads to the development of such diseases as vitamin deficiency, depression, intestinal diseases, which are dangerous not only for health, but also for the patient's life.
There are also dysbiosis in gynecology - a violation of the ratio of microorganisms in the vagina of women. They can suffer most women, but the symptoms do not always appear openly.
Diagnosis of ailment
How to treat dysbacteriosis, decide gastroenterologist, which should be addressed in such cases. First of all, a stool analysis is required from the patient to confirm the correct diagnosis. Also, the doctor may prescribe:
- examination of the rectal opening with the help of the inserted apparatus (rectoromanoscopy),
- X-ray examination with preliminary filling of the intestine with a contrast agent (irrigoscopy),
- examination of the intestinal area of up to 1 m in length using a special apparatus (colonoscopy).
Dysbacteriosis treatment is carried out using such methods:
- diet with dysbacteriosis,
- medication for dysbacteriosis (tablets or suspensions of a wide spectrum of action),
- the use of folk remedies.
Preparations for dysbacteriosis include tablets that act on harmful microorganisms, reducing their number to an acceptable minimum. Often used by doctors drugs for dysbacteriosis belong to the tetracycline series. Taking pills usually lasts up to 10 days. Also, the patient is prescribed an enzyme medication for dysbacteriosis (for example, Mezim or Essentiale), which will create all the conditions for colonization of the intestine with beneficial bacteria.
As for the diet, the food for dysbacteriosis should include a reduction in sugar intake, as many harmful microorganisms, due to the patient's sugar intake, receive energy for existence. For sugar, the use of which should be limited or even excluded, include:
- cane-type sugar,
- sugar beet sugar
- various syrups
- maltose, sorbitol and other sweeteners.
Diet for dysbacteriosis provides for the rejection of the food, which contains yeast, products that have undergone fermentation, as well as mold-containing substances. In the case of dysbacteriosis, food can be included, but it is worth a little to limit spices and vinegar. If the patient has the above-described intestinal disease, then the diet for dysbacteriosis, which will be prescribed by the doctor, will strictly prohibit drinks made as a result of the fermentation process (beer, ale, wine).
Despite the restrictions in nutrition, a diet with dysbacteriosis implies the use of a fairly large number of useful products. These include lean types of meat, eggs, rye, buckwheat and other non-white flour bread. It will be good to include greens, vegetables that contain a lot of fiber and vitamins in the diet with dysbacteriosis.
Many patients ask the doctor a question - how to treat dysbacteriosis with the help of folk remedies? This question is important for them, because such treatment with the help of folk remedies involves less spending, but its effectiveness has not been confirmed by doctors. They should be taken with caution and only after consulting a specialist. Folk remedies should not be the only treatment for dysbiosis.
As for folk remedies, the following recipes are popular among people:
- serum intake. This folk remedy provides for the fermentation of kefir and ingesting it to restore microflora in the intestines,
- taking homemade yogurt. This folk remedy is prepared by fermenting a liter of milk with crackers, obtained after drying black bread. After the product is added croutons, grated with garlic. It is believed that it is this folk remedy that contains all the necessary and beneficial bacteria for the intestine,
- increased consumption of products that contain copper. Doctors have not proven the effectiveness of such a folk treatment. Products containing copper should not be taken daily in doses greater than 3 mg,
- increase in the consumption of garlic. It is believed that this folk remedy contributes to the death of harmful microorganisms, which stops rotting and fermentation in the body. The tool must be taken in the amount of one slice before a meal. Also, garlic is a good prevention of dysbacteriosis.
Tablets, various drugs for dysbacteriosis in combination with a diet can cure the disease in a few days.Prevention of dysbiosis is a balanced diet and attentive attitude to their health. You can take some folk remedies that will help protect or restore the intestinal microflora. But this can be done only with the permission of the attending physician. Treatment of colds, intestinal and other diseases is also a good prevention of dysbacteriosis.
If you think you have Dysbacteriosis and symptoms characteristic of this disease, a gastroenterologist can help you.
We also suggest using our online disease diagnostics service, which selects possible diseases based on the entered symptoms.
Flatulence - the development of this state is based on the accumulation of a large amount of gases in the gastrointestinal tract. Often this occurs against the background of their excessive formation or insufficient elimination from the body. The development of such a disorder can be caused by a wide range of predisposing factors, which in almost all cases are associated with the occurrence of gastroenterological problems. Nevertheless, there is a category of sources that is in no way connected with the presence of a particular ailment.
Giardiasis in children - is a parasitic pathology provoked by a single-celled microorganism - Giardia. The disease is considered one of the most frequently diagnosed in patients of the pediatric age group. There are several mechanisms for the penetration of the pathological agent into the body of the child - most often this is accomplished by the food. The main risk group consists of babies 3-4 years old.
Gastroenterocolitis (foodborne toxicoinfection) is an inflammatory disease that leads to the defeat of the gastrointestinal tract, located mainly in the small or large intestine. It represents a great danger caused by possible dehydration of the body in the absence of sufficient control. It is characterized by a rapid start and a fast current. As a rule, for 3-4 days if the recommendations of the doctor are followed, as well as the appointment of adequate treatment, the symptoms of the disease subside.
E. coli (Escherichia coli) scientists call a rod-like opportunistic bacterium that can function and reproduce only in the absence of oxygen. It was discovered in the eighteenth century by Theodor Escherich, thanks to which it got its name.
The duodenal bulge is an inflammatory process of the mucous membrane of an organ, namely its bulbar section. This is due to the fact that the contents of the stomach get into the bulb of this organ and Helicobacter pylori infection occurs. The main symptoms of the disease are pain in the projection of the intestine, the intensity of which is different. In case of late treatment of such inflammation, complications may appear that are harmful to human health and can be eliminated only with the help of surgical medical intervention.
With exercise and temperance, most people can do without medicine.
The first signs of dysbiosis
Doctors say that there is no direct parallel between the clinical picture and the stages. The first signs of dysbiosis are difficult to detect on their own. An adult has no alarming symptoms. No wonder doctors say that 90% of the population of Russia are latent carriers of the disease. If weight loss is present in children as a result of dysbiosis, it is extremely difficult to determine the imbalance in men and women. The authors of monographs operate in determining the severity of test results, but the diagnosis is not made due to the presence of headaches or dry skin of the face.
Manifestations of dysbiosis in humans are different, depending on the part of the flora that became the cause. This prevents recognition of pathology, if there is a latent (hidden) period. A large proportion of patients complain of diarrhea. There is an agonizing, loose stools, with an unpleasant smell, blood impurities. Periodically, signs of intestinal dysbiosis intersect with hemorrhoids. Patients get scared, but worse if the doctor is similarly deluded.
Symptoms of the gastrointestinal tract
- Diarrhea, constipation, and the alternation of these states.
- A significant change in the structure of fecal masses - from the substance of the cork type to the porridge with an admixture of stool. Also, the feces with bisbacteriosis have a sour / putrid odor.
- Dull or dull regular abdominal pain.
- Metallic mouthfeel, vomiting and nausea.
- Significant loss of appetite.
- Incomplete bowel movement.
- Flatulence, belching.
- Dryness of the mucous membranes and skin
- Education zaedov.
The above symptoms are not typical for every patient and manifest individually - some people do not feel any discomfort at all, in the overwhelming majority, dysbacteriosis manifests itself in the form of constipation / diarrhea, in individual patients all groups of symptoms are detected.
Main stages of the disease
- A slight increase in the concentration of pathogenic flora and a decrease in the number of obligate bacteria. Symptomatology is usually absent.
- A critical decrease in the concentration of beneficial microflora, the rapid growth of pathogenic flora. This stage is often manifested by symptoms such as diarrhea, constipation and flatulence.
- Active reproduction of pathogens, inflammation of the mucous walls of the intestines.
- General depletion of the body, vitamin deficiency, obligate microflora is almost completely replaced by pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic fungi / bacteria.
What causes provoke a violation of microflora in the intestine?
The human intestine contains a large number of bacteria. You can divide them into 3 main groups:
- Useful - they help the normal functioning of not only the stomach and intestines, but also the whole organism.
- Conditionally pathogenic - they do not bring any harm, but there is no benefit from them either.
- Pathogens - adversely affect the human body.
In bacteriosis, the number of beneficial bacteria is greatly reduced, and the number of pathogenic bacteria increases, resulting in a malfunction of the intestine, which leads to various pathologies of the gastrointestinal tract. But dysbacteriosis is a secondary disease resulting from another pathology. This is exactly the reason why it is necessary to find it, only in this case it will be possible to remove all the symptoms of intestinal dysbiosis in adults and children.
Dysbacteriosis most often occurs as a result of exposure to the body of such factors:
- Improper nutrition.
- Intestinal infections.
- Taking antibiotics and other medications.
- Radiation and chemotherapy.
- Frequent stressful situations.
This leads to the fact that the symptoms begin to appear quite clearly. Intestinal dysbiosis in adults can develop as a result of long work in a harmful enterprise or as a result of age-related changes in the flora.
Types of dysbiosis
Depending on what causes the disease, we can distinguish such types of dysbiosis:
- Nutritive, it develops due to the appearance of problems in the work of the internal organs.
These types of diseases occur in quite healthy people. But this kind of bowel disorder can be caused by other pathologies:
- Diseases of the stomach, which occur with low acidity.
- Malfunctions of the pancreas.
- Pathology of the liver and gallbladder.
- Violations in the intestinal tract.
- Malabsorption syndrome, which leads to a decrease in enzyme activity and disorders in digestion.
Infectious diseases can also trigger symptoms. Intestinal dysbacteriosis in adults can often be caused by allergic diseases, immunodeficiency, hypovitaminosis, hypoxia - lack of oxygen in the tissues, or hypoxemia - reduced oxygen content in the blood.
The degree of dysbiosis
Today, doctors distinguish 3 degrees of the disease, and they depend on the severity of microflora disorders:
- The first is a significant decrease in the number and activity of beneficial microflora in the intestine.
- The second is the reproduction of pathogenic bacteria.
- The third is a large number of harmful microorganisms.
In addition, doctors classify the disease and thus:
- Weak bacteriosis, in which conditionally pathogenic microorganisms about 25%.
- Moderate bacteriosis, pathogenic microflora about 50%.
- With severe dysbacteriosis, the number of bacteria reaches 75%.
- Pronounced dysbiosis is characterized by almost complete replacement of the pathogenic beneficial microflora.
How is dysbiosis manifested in children?
Symptoms of intestinal dysbiosis in adults after antibiotics or any other effects do not appear as in children. But all parents should know what complaints the child should make to seek help from a specialist:
- Disorders of body weight: no increase, a sharp loss.
- Changes in the skin and mucous membranes: a feeling of dryness, peeling of the skin, erosion in the corners of the mouth, thrush, brightness of the mucous membranes, changes in the skin around the anus.
- Symptoms of the digestive system: disappears appetite, nausea, regurgitation, ending vomiting, smell of rot, metal taste, strong saliva, abdominal distension and pain, gas formation, itching and burning in the anus.
- Diarrhea or constipation.
How does dysbiosis occur in adults?
Symptoms of intestinal dysbiosis in adults (patient reviews indicate this) manifest as follows:
- On the part of the stomach and intestines: loss of appetite, nausea with vomiting, taste of metal in the oral cavity, acute pain or cramps in the abdomen, flatulence, feeling that the intestine is not completely empty, a violation of the chair.
- Hypovitaminosis: wounds in the corners of the mouth, dry mucous membranes and skin.
- Allergic syndrome: itching and skin rash.
- General symptoms: weakness in the whole body, fatigue from work quickly, frequent headaches.
Dysbacteriological reactions - temporary short-term changes in the intestinal microflora, can also lead to symptoms. In adults, intestinal dysbacteriosis can occur with a brief exposure to adverse factors and disappear by itself in a few days, without any therapeutic measures being required.
How to diagnose dysbacteriosis?
To accurately diagnose, it is necessary to conduct certain examinations, the most important of them is considered a microbiological examination of feces. It allows you to accurately determine the quality of microflora.
In addition, this analysis allows you to immediately determine the sensitivity of pathogenic microorganisms to drugs.
Analyze as follows: 1 g of feces diluted in saline solution and sown on a nutrient medium. Violations can be diagnosed only if there is no growth of bifidobacteria and sharply decreases the content of E. coli. Also the symptoms of dysbiosis include the presence of such bacteria: staphylococcus, proteus, fungi and others.
In addition to stool analysis, the doctor may prescribe such studies:
- Ultrasound examination of the abdominal cavity.
It is already known how the symptoms of intestinal dysbiosis manifest. Treatment in adults may be different, depending on the causes of the disease. How is dysbacteriosis treated?
Methods of treatment of dysbiosis
To make treatment as effective as possible, you need to find the best scheme. In the complex therapy should perform the following tasks:
- Restore the intestinal microflora.
- Eliminate foreign microorganisms.
- Restore immunity.
- Resume the work of the digestive tract, bring peristalsis and motility back to normal.
This is the only way to eliminate intestinal dysbiosis, symptoms. Treatment in adults begins with the selection of drugs. But many patients often combine medication with traditional medicine. But it is impossible to do without medicaments, and the first thing you need to do is start taking antibacterial drugs that will prevent the reproduction of pathogenic bacteria.
So it will surely be eliminated if symptoms of intestinal dysbiosis are made, symptoms. Treatment in adults (reviews only confirm this) will end successfully if you include drugs that will prevent the reproduction of pathogenic microorganisms. If the presence of a fungus is detected, it is recommended to add antifungal agents to the main treatment.
In addition, the scheme should include the intake of bacterial preparations, which include live cultures. Dysbacteriosis therapy is long and can take several months. It is imperative to start taking means that normalize motor skills. Effectively cure the pathology without dieting will not succeed.
What drugs are effective for dysbacteriosis?
In order for the treatment of dysbacteriosis to be effective, you need to choose the right scheme, and such groups of drugs should be included in it:
- Prebiotics, the most typical representative is "Inulin", here you can also refer "Duphalac". They contain substances that are not digested, but they create favorable conditions for the intestinal microflora.
- Probiotics, for example, Multilak, Linex. These tablets contain live cultures.
- Antagonists. These preparations contain bacteria that in no way belong to the obligate flora, but at the same time they do not allow the multiplication of opportunistic bacteria.
- Combined funds. In their composition there are not only bacteria of obligate flora, but also substances that normalize immunity.
- Synbiotics combine the properties of prebiotics and probiotics. In our country, Biovestin-lacto, Maltidofilius, Bifido-bak are produced.
- Intestinal antiseptics. These drugs are not absorbed, but effectively inhibit the reproduction of pathogenic flora.
- Antibacterial drugs. They are prescribed only if the form of pathology is established. In this case, it is necessary to take into account the spectrum of sensitivity of bacteria to antibiotics.
- Bacteriophages. To remove the signs of dysbacteriosis, you can start taking medicines containing viruses that have a detrimental effect on a certain type of bacteria.
After he began to show his intestinal dysbacteriosis brightly, the treatment in adults, the diet should be selected by a doctor who knows the causes of the pathology.
Nutrition for dysbacteriosis
During the treatment of dysbacteriosis, you need to follow a diet, to completely exclude the following products at the time of therapy:
- Spicy and fried.
- Bitter and sour.
- Meat cooked on the fire or grill.
- Marinated products.
- Carbonated and alcoholic beverages.
- Smoked meats.
- Canned vegetables.
It is better to give preference to such products during the treatment:
- Low-fat broths.
- Boiled rice
- Vegetables and fruits boiled.
- Cottage cheese and kefir without additives.
- Fresh cucumbers.
- Potatoes and greens in small quantities.
- Fresh berries.
Only by following all the recommendations, you can get rid of all the symptoms of dysbacteriosis without health consequences. After all, the state of the whole organism depends on the work of our gastrointestinal tract.
Dysbacteriosis is an imbalance of intestinal microflora. As a result, digestion suffers: a feature of the disease is the frequent accompanying diarrhea due to impaired water-salt metabolism. The body is unable to hold the electrolyte. The course of the disease is inherent in severe dehydration. Sometimes diarrhea can not be appeased with an extreme measure — a daily hunger strike.
The identified disease needs a comprehensive solution.A doctor with a patient has to solve a number of tasks:
- Destruction of pathogenic flora.
- Absorption of toxins, excretion from the body.
- Creating normal conditions in the intestines.
- Breeding on the basis of the desired microflora.
Symptoms of intestinal dysbiosis in women and men are similar because of the similarity of pathogens. We emphasize: pathogens push out the normal microflora, settling in the vacant place. This condition is called dysbacteriosis, which can develop into dysentery, cholera and other intestinal diseases.
In the later stages, the pathogenic flora enters the bloodstream, appearing in unconventional places of localization. For example, from the large intestine passes into the mouth, causing a symptom of unpleasant fatal odor. Elena Malysheva attributes this phenomenon to Ozen. Add, trouble with the nasopharynx is completely provoked by problems at the level of the lower intestine.
We will address the issue of microflora in the body. The world around is filled with bacteria. If various types of microorganisms could enter the intestine with comfortable conditions for reproduction (acceptable temperature, nutrient medium, abundance of moisture), such an organism would lead to a catastrophe, destroying a person.
Protective functions of microflora
Therefore, the mucosa has measures of protection against invasion. This includes the production of interferon, immunoglobulins to suppress excess activity. No less important is the local microflora. During the existence of mankind has formed for any mucous set of strains, coexistence with which protects against external threats. Regulation occurs in a similar way:
- The microbe occupying a certain territory does not allow other types of microorganisms. For example, Fleming was surprised to see how a mold that produces penicillin kills all pathogenic flora in the area. Something similar happens in the intestines. Bacteria living in the organ form metabolites that regulate the conditions of the environment unsuitable for the development of a harmful population.
- Bacteria take place, prevent external invasion.
Inside the person is a friendly community, not complaining about strangers. However, periodically pathogenic flora infuses. When a pathogenic bacteria, getting into the intestines, due to the weakening of local protection begins to multiply, this is the beginning of the end. Normal microflora gradually dies, giving way to pathogenic.
On the path of invasion is a serious barrier - the stomach with a magic juice - a weak solution of hydrochloric acid. A low pH factor kills some of the bacteria, gram-positive (most normal microflora) and gram-negative. This explains the paucity of the stomach population.
Digestive juice kills flora, pathogenic and beneficial. Above mentioned about gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Although the former dominate, the view cannot be said to be safe. This includes, for example, clostridia - the causative agents of botulism, gas gangrene and other serious diseases.
Barrier systems are characteristic of the human body. For example, the brain is fenced from the body by the hemato-encephalic barrier. For the reason mentioned, it is impossible to unequivocally consider a person who is opposed to alcohol, a sober person with a strong will.
The composition of microflora
Signs of dysbiosis in adults are identified by changes in the intestinal flora. For the most part we are talking about the colon due to the above features. The population density gradually increases when moving towards the anus. Maximum inhabitants concentrated in the colon. Dominated by bifidobacteria - anaerobic flora. Traditionally, it is customary to divide populations into three categories:
- Obligate microflora ranks as a full population. It prevents the penetration of pathogenic strains from outside, performs a number of useful functions: synthesizes vitamins, ferments proteins and cellulose, forms immunity. The concentration of the population reaches hundreds of billions of units, accounting for 90% of the local population.
- The facultative flora is represented by the conditionally pathogenic part. For example, Staphylococcus aureus, which is more often found in the upper respiratory tract, is practically indestructible. Easily causes damage to the joints.
- Transient microflora for a long time does not linger in normal conditions. It becomes the cause of the disease or dissolves without a trace.
Pathogenic flora is not included in the classification. For the time being, it is suppressed by normal microflora and immunity. Constantly ready to cause the corresponding disease.
Representatives of obligate microflora
A long conversation about the microflora is not accidental. If a person knows about the functions of typical representatives of biota, he is aware of intestinal dysbiosis. The clinical picture is the insufficiency of the function of the obligate part of the population: avitaminosis, weakened immunity. An informed person will be able to identify dysbiosis by external signs.
Bifidobacteria and lactobacilli
vita brevis ars longa
The specified proportion of anaerobes takes 90 - 98% of the total. In children, the microflora is dominated by Lactobacillus brevis and Bifidobacterium bifidum. The first are one of a number of reasons for the fermentation of beer, are part of kefir. The latter are found in human milk. There is nothing surprising in the penetration of microorganisms into the intestines of a child. Both species are found in the vagina with a concentration of 1 million units.
Lactobacilli are relatively few. An order of magnitude less than bifidobacteria. Lactobacilli are 44 species, their habitat is wider, found even in the stomach, in low concentration. Lactobacilli are mainly engaged in maintaining the desired level of pH-factor, playing the role of an important prerequisite for the suppression of alien microflora.
The diseases caused by bifidobacteria are unknown.
As part of the anaerobic obligate microflora, organisms maintain a pH level in the range of 5.5, inhibiting the growth of pathogenic flora. With excessive reproduction easily cause the formation of acne - propionobacteria are to blame for acne vulgaris in adolescents.
Aerobic gram-negative bacteria - E. coli, presented in the large intestine and distal small. Detection in other areas indicates the development of a dysbacteriosis of severe or pre-severe form. Penetrate into the oral cavity, duodenum, stomach and gallbladder. Most of them are full-fledged strains, 5-10% have weak enzymatic properties.
Hemolyzing (blood-destroying) colonies are considered pathogenic; in a healthy state, no person is observed. This condition is explained by the antagonism of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli. When distributed beyond the limits of habitat E. coli causes inflammation, leading to sepsis.
The complex of gram-negative rods is represented by the mentioned microorganisms. With age, the amount increases up to 100 billion units per 1 g of feces. And although representatives break down bile acids, they are part of the metabolic chain of fat processing, under favorable conditions, they easily cause inflammatory processes, starting from the oral cavity and ending with wounds.
In bottle-fed babies, there are 1-2 orders of magnitude greater than these cocci. The most part is harmless, it prevents the introduction of pathogenic flora, helps to develop immunity. However, pathogenic strains cause a number of diseases, for example, sore throats.
Aerobic and anaerobic strains are present. Breastfed babies are almost completely absent. Bacillus class includes clostridia. Peaceful representatives cleave proteins, stimulate the smooth muscle's mechanical functions. Pathogenic strains cause dangerous diseases, leading to botulism (which does not produce immunity). Easily adjusted to diarrhea, the intestinal contents begin to rot.
Yeast in the intestine less than others. Excessive reproduction causes various kinds of inflammatory processes, starting from the oral cavity, ending with the urethra.
In modern practice, sowing feces. According to the results of the study, the diagnosis of intestinal dysbiosis is set. According to the criterion, intestinal bacteriosis is divided into three degrees of severity, the sign is the population density of microorganisms.
The degrees are very different for people younger and older than 60 years. Quantitative differences reach the same order.
First degree (easy form)
- Up to 60 years: the density of bifidobacteria is reduced to 100 million units, lactobacilli - to 1 million. Elevated or reduced levels of Escherichia coli - from 1 million to 10 billion.
- After 60 years: the level of bifidobacteria in the range of 10 million, lactobacilli - up to 100 thousand. Intestinal sticks - the same.
Second degree (moderate form)
- Up to 60 years: the population density of bifidobacteria drops to 10 million and below, lactobacilli - up to 100 thousand. Hemolytic E. coli appear in a concentration of up to 10 million. An increased amount of conditionally pathogenic flora is found (up to 100 thousand units).
- Over 60: the density of bifidobacteria falls to 1 million, lactobacilli - up to 10 thousand. With E. coli and conditionally pathogenic flora - the same.
Before considering the bacterial picture, it is logical to give a general idea of which clinical signs are concomitant. The presentation is formed from the functions of the obligate flora, which forms the immune system, produces vitamins, ferments proteins and complex carbohydrates. All of the above is violated. Immunity decreases, avitaminosis develops (group B, K and PP), the body is poisoned by toxins. The specific effect of the pathogenic flora is imposed on a similar picture:
- Reduced mucosal resistance (to colonization).
- The disorder of the motor function of the intestine, its blood circulation.
- Decreased detoxification function.
- Immune weakening.
Dyspepsia refers to a complex of non-dangerous symptoms associated with a disorder of the digestive system: abdominal distension, flatulence, pain on palpation along the colon (a form of Greek Omega), heartburn, belching, vomiting and nausea. Observed diarrhea, feces liquid, sometimes foaming, smelly or with a sour odor. There may be traces of blood, blue mucus. Bulging is sometimes observed separately in the right and left hypochondrium.
Dominance proteus provokes frequent, loose stools (6-8 times daily). The feces are frothy, of a greenish hue, with an unpleasant odor. Pseudomonas aeruginosa forms the appearance of feces, according to the name. Excrement is full of mucus. Staphylococcus aureus provides a complex of symptoms that manifests itself similar to a proteus, and blood streaks may be present instead of an unpleasant odor. The color of feces is greenish.
It is expressed by the consequences of the excessive use of antibiotics. Already in the latent period there are manifestations:
- General ill health.
- Increased temperature.
- Itching, burning around the anus.
- Excretions mucous and blood.
- False urge to defecate.
- Dull pains.
It is necessary to separate the phenomenon from the violation of absorption, in this case impaired formation of vitamins in the gastrointestinal tract. Vitamins B stimulate smooth muscles, their absence leads to constipation. The tone of the intestinal walls is reduced, blood circulation is impaired. Anemia develops. A lack of vitamin K leads to a decrease in blood coagulation.
Intestinal dysbiosis causes a deficiency of vitamin B2. Stomatitis develops, lips crack, less often - hair falls out, nails change. People with a lack of thiamine sleep poorly, nervous, comes to neuritis. Low intake of PP causes depression. The tongue and throat bright red, constantly flowing saliva.
There is a lack of fat-soluble vitamins. Acute intestinal dysbacteriosis causes severe disturbances that occur less frequently.
Treatment of folk remedies
Traditional medicine knows hundreds of prescriptions for the treatment of dysbacteriosis, but before using them, you should always consult with your doctor.
The most famous and effective of the recipes:
- Take a glass of milk, 300 grams of Jerusalem artichoke, one tablespoon of flour and butter, as well as salt and greens to taste. Peel the root vegetables, chop them finely, put them in boiling milk, previously diluted with water 50 to 50, and cook on low heat for about fifteen minutes. Pour the milk into another dish, bring it to a boil again, and add flour that has been browned with butter, and then simmer until thickened (similar to white sauce). Let the ingredients cool down, then pour the ready topinambur with sauce, decorate with greens and eat.
- Take two parts of plantain, peppermint, chamomile, and also one part of turnip seeds and St. John's wort. One tablespoon of this mixture pour ½ liter of boiling water, let it brew for thirty minutes. Strain the resulting infusion and drink a glass three times a day.
- A tablespoon of Potentilla brew in a glass of boiling water, boil the ingredient for fifteen minutes over low heat and let it brew for 24 hours. Drink a third of a glass three times a day.
- Garlic helps perfectly against bisbacteriosis - it must be consumed daily in one lobule of garlic ½ hour before a meal, washed down with a fermented milk product. Before bedtime, use three cloves of garlic, immediately after dinner.
Diet for dysbacteriosis
Nutrition for dysbacteriosis should be clearly balanced - definitely exclude from the diet any foods that activate the increased formation of gases in the intestines - these are melons, grapes, cabbage, beans, beets, peas, coarse bread, soybeans, carbonated water, fermentation products, alcohol. Limit consumption of apples.
You can eat dairy products, carrots, boiled meat, brown bread, various yogurts, eggs, greens, onions, fresh berries, as well as other not prohibited foods in limited quantities. It is advisable to eat fractional small portions, 5-7 times a day, evenly distributing the diet and not overeating.
Does dysbacteriosis often start after taking antibiotics?
A common cause of dysbacteriosis is the use of antibiotics, especially if it is produced uncontrollably, and strong, broad-spectrum drugs are used. With proper and adequate therapy, the attending physician includes remedies in the list of drugs to neutralize the negative effects of antibacterial systemic drugs on the intestines, however often they are not enough to correct the problem, especially if the patient has previously had problems with the gastrointestinal tract or other factors inducing the problem. .
What are the most popular drugs for dysbiosis?
As a rule, the treatment of dysbacteriosis is individual, and the corresponding therapy is prescribed by the doctor based on the current state of the patient. A mandatory element of complex treatment is the use of pro-and prebiotics, in particular such drugs as Linex and Hilak Forte. Also, almost always the doctor prescribes the reception of enzymes - Mezim, Festal, Enzibene.
Where to pass the analysis for dysbacteriosis?
Analysis of feces and, accordingly, a complete study of the intestinal microflora, can be carried out both in private diagnostic centers and in a number of public hospitals. Clinics usually do not have the necessary diagnostic equipment.
A few days before taking the necessary analysis, stop taking medications that affect peristalsis, and also refuse rectal suppositories.The day before the collection of material can not use an enema, to conduct x-rays with barium, as well as taking antibiotics.