Polyps

Polyps in the stomach, intestines

Polyps, which are formed in the digestive organs, usually do not have clear symptoms, so it is often not possible to find out about the presence, as well as the nature of the neoplasm, without a special study. The most effective method today is endoscopic examination.

Such diagnostics, in addition to confirming the presence of polyps in the gastrointestinal tract organs, allows performing targeted biopsy. This makes it possible to conduct a histological study of the neoplasm and determine the choice of the correct treatment strategy.

Such a study should be carried out with any pathological changes in the intestine or stomach, and especially in the presence of tumor-like outgrowths in them, which have a tendency to malignancy in order to reveal the nature of the changes occurring in them. A polyp biopsy allows you to determine its cellular composition.

In the event that a microscopic examination of an organ damaged by the pathology shows a positive result, it will be final and on the basis of it an appropriate treatment will be prescribed, which is usually carried out by surgery, followed by drug therapy.

And if the conclusion of a polyp biopsy turns out to be negative, but the patient will have indirect signs of a tumor process occurring in the stomach or intestines, and also the endoscopist will suspect an erroneous result of the study, this procedure is reappointed.

It is necessary to know the exact results of the biopsy in order to decide on the method of urgent surgical intervention only on their basis. In case of polyps, this can be both abdominal surgery and minimally invasive, performed without opening the cavities, with the help of an endoscopic apparatus.

Indications for polyp biopsy

The presence of these benign neoplasms for the most part can provoke the presence of congestion in the organs of the gastrointestinal tract. This causes various disruptions in the digestion process and, accordingly, symptoms of the presence in the gastrointestinal tract of polyps, for the study of which a biopsy is needed, will be the following:

  • Irregular stools, which may be completely absent for more than 2 days,
  • In the area of ​​the stomach pains begin to manifest themselves, which move to the lumbar region,
  • Frequent feeling of nausea, unwarranted drooling and heartburn,
  • Reduced appetite or lack of it.

But it should be noted that these signs may indicate not only the presence of polyps, but also other gastrointestinal diseases for which biopsy results are necessary. Therefore, if any of these symptoms occur, a visit to the doctor is obligatory.

Contraindications for polyp biopsy

Due to the fact that biopsy is mandatory for endoscopic examination of the stomach, it is necessary to pay close attention to possible contraindications for both procedures. These usually include the following:

  • The presence in the stomach of deformed cicatricial structures or its perforation,
  • Chemical burn, present on the mucous membrane of the digestive organ,
  • Atrophic gastritis or hemorrhagic diathesis,
  • Severe condition of the patient, which has arisen due to the presence of concomitant diseases.

Relative contraindications that should also be taken into account before taking an endoscopic biopsy of polyps include the patient's allergic reactions to drugs such as lidocaine, the possibility of significant bleeding that occurs when the mucous membrane is damaged, the person’s fear of performing this study. .

Causes of polyp formation

Scientists still have not come to a common opinion about the etiology of the occurrence of polyps. The most common inflammatory theory and the theory of embryonic ectopia (displacement - congenital or acquired - tissue in an unusual place for it), etc.

Polyps of the stomach and intestines are often found in patients with various gastroenterological pathologies (for example, gastritis, the presence of pathogenic Helicobacter pylori infections).

Risk factors for the development of polyps in the stomach and intestines are also older than 40 years of age, heredity, long-term use of certain medications, etc.

Symptoms of polyps in the stomach

Polyps in the stomach in 80% of cases develop in the antrum, but there is also another localization. Among polyps of various shapes and sizes, a polyp that has grown to a significant size on a broad basis is particularly dangerous in terms of malignancy.

Unfortunately, it is difficult to detect polyps in the stomach in a timely manner, since they are asymptomatic for a long time. In such a situation, they become an accidental find during gastroscopy or X-ray examination.

Painful sensations in the case of gastric polyps occur when there is a pronounced inflammatory process and are located under the spoon (often as a reaction to food intake).

If polypous growth blocks the exit from the stomach, vomiting occurs. Characteristic signs - nausea, belching, bitter taste in the mouth. With ulceration of a polyp, gastric bleeding occurs (in this case, blood appears in the vomit and feces, as well as signs of anemia are observed). Acute cramping pains in the epigastric region indicate a possible infringement of a polyp on a long leg when it falls into the duodenum.

When a polyp is malignant, general weakness, weight loss, and lack of appetite are noted. Unfortunately, the process of transition of a polyp to cancer can not be traced. Therefore, when detecting gastric polyps, the patient should be under medical supervision by a gastroenterologist.

Symptoms of polyps in the intestines

In most cases, polyps in the intestines do not bother the patient, do not affect the work of the organ. With a significant proliferation of a polyp, constipation may occur, and with its ulceration - bleeding from the rectum. Abundant mucous discharge from the rectum is possible (with villous polyps, which are the most dangerous in terms of transformation into cancer).

Diagnosis and treatment of gastric and intestinal polyps

The most effective type of diagnosis in the study of polyps of the stomach and intestines is the endoscopic method, which allows to determine the size, shape, localization of education, perform targeted biopsy and determine treatment tactics.

A biopsy of a stomach and intestinal polyp makes it possible to determine the cellular composition of a neoplasm. Positive conclusion with a biopsy of the stomach and intestines is final. With a negative conclusion in the presence of indirect signs of the tumor process and the suspicion of the endoscopist, a biopsy of the stomach and intestinal polyps can be repeated. Only on the basis of the results of a biopsy is the question of the need for surgery. Endoscopic polypectomy is the main treatment for gastric and intestinal polyps. This is a minimally invasive surgery that is performed without opening the cavities.

In our clinic, endoscopy with sedation is used, which ensures comfort and painlessness of the procedure. The study is conducted by high-end endoscopic physicians. Do not postpone your visit to MediciCity, make sure that you are healthy!

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What is a polyp?

Polyps are growths of the inner layer of the colon wall, which protrude into the intestinal lumen. In shape, there are two types of polyps — on the leg (they are usually small, with a smooth surface, resemble a mushroom) and on a broad base (flatter and larger, creeping, soft, “fleecy”), their sizes can vary from a few millimeters to centimeters . Polyps, as a rule, do not disturb the patient until a certain time and are accidentally detected by an endoscopic (colonoscopy / rectosigmoscopy) or X-ray (irrigoscopy) examination of the intestine. In some cases, large polyps can cause discomfort, pain in the anus and abdomen, abnormal stools, which may also be signs of other diseases (hemorrhoids, anal fissure, inflammatory bowel disease, etc.). In cases where the polyp is located in the lower intestine (rectum or sigmoid colon), the polyps may appear as a strip of blood and / or mucus on the surface of the feces.

There are inflammatory polyps (appear at the site of inflammation), hyperplastic (the result of excessive growth of normal tissue) and neoplastic (with the presence of atypical cells). Most of the polyps are benign tumors, but in some cases they can degenerate into cancer. Such a transformation is more characteristic of villous glandular polyps.

How are colon polyps diagnosed?

The main diagnostic method for polyps is colonoscopy. This endoscopic (intraluminal) study allows you to visually assess the condition of the colon almost throughout its length (about 2 meters) and, if polyps are detected, remove them during the procedure and / or make a biopsy. In EMC, colonoscopy is performed using short-term sedation (anesthesia), which avoids the unpleasant sensations associated with inserting a probe (endoscope) and injecting air to smooth the bowel.

There are alternative methods for the diagnosis of colon polyps, but each has its own limitations. For example, rectosigmoscopy allows only the rectum and the lower part of the colon to be examined, while the probability of finding polyps in other parts of the intestine is high. its structure and does not allow to take a sample of tissue for research. Therefore, when polyps are detected by any of these methods, the patient is necessarily referred to a colonoscopy.

The specific type of procedure used to obtain the sample will depend on where the polyp or polyps are located, as well as their size and number. Various treatments include:

colonoscopy for colon colposcopy

for polyps located in the vagina or cervix

  • esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) for polyps located in the gastrointestinal tract
  • laryngoscopy for polyps located in the nose, throat or voice communications
  • If the polyp is located in an area that is easy to reach, a small piece of tissue is simply removed and biopsied.
  • PreparingHow do I prepare for a polypous biopsy?

The necessary preparations for a polyp biopsy will vary depending on the type of procedure being performed. As a rule, no special training is required when the polyp is located in the nose or other open, easily accessible area of ​​the body. However, you need to prepare for a biopsy if the polyp is located in an organ inside your body, such as the colon or uterus. Your doctor will give you specific instructions before the test, which may include fasting or after a special liquid diet one to three days before the procedure. It is important to strictly follow the instructions of your doctor.

It is also important to tell your doctor about any prescription drugs, non-prescription drugs and supplements you are taking. You should also notify them about allergies.

Since you will calm down during a biopsy, it is also a good idea to arrange a trip home later. The sedative effect may take some time to pull down, making it unsafe for you to control yourself.

Risks. What are the risks of a polypian biopsy?

The risk of polyp biopsy rarely occurs. However, there are several risks associated with the procedure. These include:

  • damage to a nerve located near a polyp
  • piercing the organ where the polyp is located
  • , adverse reaction to the type of anesthesia used
  • Procedure What happens during a polyp biopsy?
  • Polyp biopsy is usually done in the doctor’s office or in the hospital. The procedure will be performed by your doctor or other health care provider. They will give you an anesthetic so that you do not feel pain during the biopsy. Depending on the type of procedure being performed, you are given a general or local anesthetic. General anesthesia will make you sleep throughout the procedure, and the local anesthetic will numb the area where you have the procedure. How this is done depends on the location of the polyp.

Why are polyps considered precancerous?

Not all polyps are reborn into cancer, but it is believed that in 80% of cases colon cancer is preceded by a benign polyp stage. Therefore, a polyp is considered as a precancerous disease, suggesting its endoscopic removal (polypectomy) in order to prevent the development of a malignant tumor.

What if polyps are found in the colon?

Traditionally, any polyp detected by colonoscopy should be removed and sent for histological examination. Medicinal methods of treatment of colon polyps do not exist. There are only assumptions about reducing the risk of developing polyps when taking certain medications.

The removal of colon polyps (polypectomy) in most cases is carried out with the help of endoscopic equipment - with the help of a special instrument, at the end of which there is an electrode in the form of a loop.

Occasionally, several procedures may be required to remove large polyps. If the size and location of the polyps do not allow this manipulation endoscopically, surgery is required - resection of the part of the intestine with the tumor.

Polyp Biopsy Technique

One name of this procedure causes fear in a patient to whom, due to physiological pathologies, it is assigned. This is facilitated by the numerous stories of "knowledgeable" people about the painfulness of this study and the unpleasant sensations caused by it.

But it is not always worth listening to such warnings, as many of them are not true. Here and in the case of biopsy of the digestive organ polyps, there is such a technique in which very thin needles are used as a tool for its implementation. Conducted in this way, the procedure does not cause the patient any negative feelings and pain.

In that case, when the polyp biomaterial is taken for further investigation by surgical method, the patient is under local anesthesia, therefore, this method also will not bring any pain or discomfort.

What is a biopsy?

Biopsy refers to invasive techniques that require anesthesia in a number of cases. The procedure is performed in a special hospital.

A biopsy is a test material that can be obtained from virtually every internal organ or tissue, thanks to modern high-tech methods.In some cases, along with a biopsy, pathological growth can be removed simultaneously.

Excision is carried out in many different ways, depending on the nature of the material studied. The method requires special preparation, rehabilitation period.

Attention! The method has indications and contraindications, so if there is a risk of destruction of the tissues of the tumor or polyp during the procedure, the expediency of the biopsy is questionable.

Often, research requires materials located in the depths of the human body. Depending on the localization of pathological growths of the mucous membrane, choose the type of biopsy.

  • Total biopsy. The method of research, in which all pathologically changed parts of the organ are important. During the procedure, the site of the polyp with the base and nearby tissues is excised. Research is usually shown at generalized or diffusion polyposis of various localization.
  • Aspiration. The method allows to study the contents of the hollow and abdominal structures of an organ using its aspiration with a needle and aspirator. It is used mainly in juvenile polyps, where the cystic granulomatous component prevails. Intake of material allows to evaluate the nature of the exudate inside the cyst.
  • Open biopsy. Refers to a full-fledged operation, which requires the dissection of superficial tissue. Often, along with this kind of biopsy, deep-seated polyps or tumors within healthy tissue are simultaneously removed. The procedure is quite traumatic, therefore its expediency is determined by the potential risks for the patient in relation to the real benefit.
  • Sighting. A method used under the control of optical equipment, for example, during endoscopic examination. It is used for polyps of the stomach, gall bladder, intestines, uterus and cervix.

Many different methods of biopsy sampling are determined by various localization of pathological foci and their structural content.

Not every patient who is shown a biopsy, this procedure is assigned. During and after the manipulation, serious complications are possible associated with the deterioration of the patient's general condition, as well as the unpredictability of the clinical behavior of tumor-like growths.

Stomach and esophagus

Biopsy of gastric polyps is one of the safest methods with endoscopic diagnosis. Usually no anesthesia is required, but oral administration of Almagel A with anesthetic is possible to facilitate the procedure.

The duration of the procedure is 25-30 minutes. The whole picture is displayed on a computer monitor. The manipulation itself is carried out with the help of an endoscope. A preliminary x-ray is recommended before the biopsy.

It is prescribed for suspected polyps in the stomach caused by peptic ulcer, gastritis, bleeding, and the appearance of heaviness in the stomach of unknown etiology.

During the procedure, patients feel a little discomfort.

Decoding the results implies an assessment:

  • tumor forms and structures,
  • the height of the epithelial villi,
  • polyp body relief,
  • depth and width of the base.

After a biopsy, traces or deep scars rarely remain, but fragments of bleeding persist. Usually, the symptoms of discomfort after a biopsy pass on their own. Otherwise, medication therapy, diet food can be prescribed. Information about what you can eat with stomach polyps right here.

Traditional intestinal biopsy is used very often to study altered mucosal tissues about the risks of cancer transformation.

The procedure involves a complex effect, which allows for the diagnosis and simultaneous treatment of polyposis. Various segments of the intestine are examined under a microscope, and the image is displayed on the monitor.

For small polyps, a biopsy is performed to eliminate the risk of malignancy. Large polyps immediately remove and send the material for research with preservation.

Biopsy sampling is carried out by means of a colonoscope, which is inserted into the rectal lumen of the intestine.

To make the procedure as comfortable as possible, anesthesia is administered to patients.:

  • Common (medication sleep),
  • Local (applying lidocaine to the tip of the colonoscope),
  • Sedation (intravenous administration of drugs for immersion in superficial sleep).

After biopsy sampling, tissue is sent for cytological and histopathological examination. The approach to the desired biopsy may vary during the survey.

The procedure is assigned when:

  • the appearance of blood in the feces,
  • copious mucous discharge from the rectal canal,
  • painful bowel movement.

Usually, manipulation does not have serious consequences, but it requires special thoroughness.

Note! With all the recommendations of the doctor on the preparation and after the procedure - the consequences and risks of complications are minimal.

The diagnostic method is rarely used, usually abnormal growths are removed immediately if they interfere with normal nasal breathing. What causes polyps in the nose and how to treat a tumor, we have already written earlier.

Nasal polyps rarely malignant, therefore, against the background of the absolute health of the patient, further research is not carried out. Read more about whether nasal polyps can develop into cancer. See here.

With a suspicious growth structure, with its bleeding and tendency to spread over the entire mucosal tissue, the results of the biopsy may be of clinical significance.

The procedure is performed by nasal endoscopy. The equipment is equipped with lenses and a camera. The study allows us to give a complete assessment of the state of the nasal cavity, sinus sinuses, including the sphenoid. What is dangerous cyst of the sphenoid sinus find here.

Special training is not required, it is only important to pre-rinse the nose and remove excess mucus. How to drop drops in the nose and how to do the washings, we told in the section with useful information.

On a note! Anesthesia with a biopsy of the nasal passages involves the local administration of drugs. The consequences of manipulation are minimal, sometimes there are impurities of blood in the mucous secretion. This phenomenon usually resolves on its own.

Uterus and cervix

A cervical biopsy is a common diagnostic procedure that involves the simultaneous removal of an abnormal growth, if necessary.

Polyps in the uterus are predominantly benign growths that, under certain circumstances, transform into malignant tumors and carcinomas.

Biopsy of the uterus and cervix ugly procedure. The site determined by the doctor is captured with tweezers and excised in the form of a cone. After the women are stitched.

The procedure is carried out on the 7-10 day of the menstrual cycle, can be carried out during pregnancy. Already by the beginning of a new cycle, the wound surface on the mucous has time to fully recover.

Within 5 days after the manipulation spotting may be observed resembling blood-like.

Given that the cervical canal does not have pain receptors, the procedure does not bring much pain to a woman. A biopsy is performed using both a loop and a knife. In case of significant bleeding, vaginal tamponade is performed.

Additionally, you can prescribe a diagnostic curettage polyp of the cervical canal. Special training is not required, but in the presence of acute inflammatory diseases, antibiotic therapy is required.

Result and evaluation criteria

The main purpose of a biopsy is to separate benign growths from malignant ones.

For this, it is important during the study to evaluate some of the criteria.:

  1. Histogenesis. The criterion implies the presence or absence of organ, cyto and histotypical cells characteristic of an oncological tumor, as well as other special biofragments.
  2. Polyp or tumor. An important criterion for differentiating a polyp from an incipient tumor, especially if the polyp has a broad base and no leg. The inadequacy of growths, atypism of structures is determined.
  3. The nature of the neoplasm. Are there any tendencies of the polyp to malignancy (the presence of atypical cells, secondary changes, necrotic fragments, ulceration, invasiveness of vascular components, growth characteristics, and much more).
  4. Degree of malignancy. The main criterion in the study - the depth of the lesion and the severity of the atypism of altered cells. Important indicators of lymphocytic and mitotic index, the combination of the tumor with other nearby tissues or organs.

To biopsy gave the maximum diagnostic assessment, conduct additional research methods:

  • histochemical,
  • histological,
  • immunohistochemistry.

Laboratory data, provided that a wide arsenal of research methods is applied, allow us to reliably assess a clinical problem and select an adequate treatment.

Contraindications to

Contraindications to intraorgan biopsy (stomach, intestines, uterine cavity, and others) are usually the following conditions and diseases:

  • Serious deformities and proliferation of mucous membranes:
  • Acute inflammations of internal organs,
  • Internal bleeding
  • Early childhood (with juvenile polyps),
  • Mucosal burn,
  • Recent operations on the organ under study,
  • Burdened clinical history of the patient.

Relative contraindications are allergic reactions to anesthetics and other drugs used during endoscopic examinations, pregnancy and lactation in women.

Is biopsy dangerous?? - Answer in this video:

Biopsy is a serious diagnostic examination, coupled with therapeutic and manipulative measures. Carrying out requires the preparation of the patient and the qualifications of a doctor. An important aspect is the laboratory equipment and diagnostic resources. The more available to the laboratory technician for the study of biopsy material, the more valuable the data obtained to specialists.

What is a polypian biopsy?

Polyp is an abnormal growth of tissue that forms in the body. Polyps can appear in any organ that has blood vessels, but is most often found in:

Most polyps are benign or irrational. However, since polyps are caused by abnormal cell growth, they can eventually become cancerous. There may be one polyp or several polyps.

Polyps usually do not cause symptoms, so they often go unnoticed until the doctor finds them during an unrelated medical test or a routine physical examination. If your doctor finds a polyp in your body, they are likely to have a biopsy. During a polyp biopsy, a tissue sample is removed and analyzed under a microscope.

Polyps can develop in people of all ages. However, they are generally more common in adults over 50, especially those who smoke and are overweight. People who abuse alcohol and have a high-fat diet are also at increased risk of polyps.

Why is a polypus biopsy performed?

Your doctor may want to take a polyp biopsy to determine if the growth is malignant or irrational. During the procedure, a tissue sample is removed for analysis.

The specific type of procedure used to obtain the sample will depend on where the polyp or polyps are located, as well as their size and number. Various treatments include:

  • colonoscopy for colon colposcopy
  • for polyps located in the vagina or cervix
  • esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) for polyps located in the gastrointestinal tract
  • laryngoscopy for polyps located in the nose, throat or voice communications

If the polyp is located in an area that is easy to reach, a small piece of tissue is simply removed and biopsied.

How to prepare for polyp biopsy?

The necessary preparations for a polyp biopsy will vary depending on the type of procedure being performed. As a rule, no special training is required when the polyp is located in the nose or other open, easily accessible area of ​​the body. However, you need to prepare for a biopsy if the polyp is located in an organ inside your body, such as the colon or uterus. Your doctor will give you specific instructions before the test, which may include fasting or after a special liquid diet one to three days before the procedure. It is important to strictly follow the instructions of your doctor.

It is also important to tell your doctor about any prescription drugs, non-prescription drugs and supplements you are taking. You should also notify them about allergies.

Since you will calm down during a biopsy, it is also a good idea to arrange a trip home later. The sedative effect may take some time to pull down, making it unsafe for you to control yourself.

What are the risks of a polypian biopsy?

The risk of polyp biopsy rarely occurs. However, there are several risks associated with the procedure. These include:

  • infection
  • excessive bleeding
  • damage to a nerve located near a polyp
  • piercing the organ where the polyp is located
  • , adverse reaction to the type of anesthesia used

What happens during a polyp biopsy?

Polyp biopsy is usually done in the doctor’s office or in the hospital. The procedure will be performed by your doctor or other health care provider. They will give you an anesthetic so that you do not feel pain during the biopsy. Depending on the type of procedure being performed, you are given a general or local anesthetic. General anesthesia will make you sleep throughout the procedure, and the local anesthetic will numb the area where you have the procedure. How this is done depends on the location of the polyp.

Colonoscopy

When a polyp is located in the large intestine or colon, a colonoscopy is performed. This includes the following steps:

  1. During the colonoscopy, you will lie on your side on a soft examination table. Your doctor may ask you to keep your knees close to your chest so that they can get the best angle to reach the colon.
  2. They then gently insert an instrument, called a colonoscope, through your anus and into your colon. A colonoscope is a long flexible tube with a small video camera attached at the end. This allows your doctor to see the inside of the entire colon.
  3. Once the colonoscope is installed, your doctor will inflate your colon with carbon dioxide to get a better view of the organ.
  4. They will then remove a sample of polyp tissue.

Colposcopy

Colposcopy is performed when the polyp is located in the cervix, vagina or vulva. This includes the following steps:

  1. During the colposcopy you will be asked to lie on your back on the examination table with your feet in the stirrups.
  2. Your doctor then places the device, called a colposcope, a few inches from your vulva.
  3. A colposcope is a large electric microscope with a bright light that allows your doctor to clearly see your cervix. Kolposkop does not touch you.
  4. Then your doctor places an instrument, called a mirror, in your vagina. The mirror covers the walls of your vagina so that your doctor can see your cervix more easily.
  5. They will smear the cervix and vagina with a cotton swab containing a solution of vinegar. This will clear the mucus and make the polyp more noticeable.
  6. Your doctor will use a sharp biopsy tool to remove a tissue sample from the growth.

Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD)

Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) is performed when the polyp is located in the gastrointestinal tract (GI). The GI tract consists of the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum. The esophagus is a muscle tube that connects the throat to the stomach and duodenum, which is the upper part of the small intestine.

During EGD, you will be asked to lie on your side at the examination table. Then your doctor slowly inserts a tool called an endoscope into your esophagus and through your stomach and duodenum. The endoscope is a long flexible tube with a camera that allows your doctor to easily examine your organs. Once your doctor finds a polyp, they will take a small sample of the tissue using forceps attached to the endoscope.

Laryngoscopy

Direct laryngoscopy is performed when the polyp is located in the nose, throat, or larynx. Horilka is your voice that contains your vocal cords. It is located on top of your pipe or trachea.

During direct laryngoscopy, you lie on your back on the examination table. Your doctor will insert a special tube called a laryngoscope into your mouth and throat. This allows your doctor to carefully read the throat and throat. They will then use a laryngoscope to collect a sample of tissue from a polyp.

After any biopsy procedure, a tissue sample will be examined with a microscope to detect any abnormalities in your cells.

Understanding of the results of polypous biopsy

After a biopsy, your doctor will usually call you to schedule a follow-up appointment so they can discuss the results with you. In some cases, they will give you results by phone.

Normal results mean no abnormal cells are found and the polyp is benign. Abnormal results mean that the polyp is malignant. If so, your doctor will determine the best course of treatment and explain the following steps.

During the colonoscopy, you will lie on your side on a soft examination table. Your doctor may ask you to keep your knees close to your chest so that they can get the best angle to reach the colon.

They then gently insert an instrument, called a colonoscope, through your anus and into your colon. A colonoscope is a long flexible tube with a small video camera attached at the end. This allows your doctor to see the inside of the entire colon.

  1. Once the colonoscope is installed, your doctor will inflate your colon with carbon dioxide to get a better view of the organ.
  2. They will then remove a sample of polyp tissue.
  3. Colposcopy
  4. Colposcopy is performed when the polyp is located in the cervix, vagina or vulva. This includes the following steps:

During the colposcopy you will be asked to lie on your back on the examination table with your feet in the stirrups.

Your doctor then places the device, called a colposcope, a few inches from your vulva.

  1. A colposcope is a large electric microscope with a bright light that allows your doctor to clearly see your cervix. Kolposkop does not touch you.
  2. Then your doctor places an instrument, called a mirror, in your vagina. The mirror covers the walls of your vagina so that your doctor can see your cervix more easily.
  3. They will smear the cervix and vagina with a cotton swab containing a solution of vinegar. This will clear the mucus and make the polyp more noticeable.
  4. Your doctor will use a sharp biopsy tool to remove a tissue sample from the growth.
  5. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD)
  6. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) is performed when the polyp is located in the gastrointestinal tract (GI). The GI tract consists of the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum. The esophagus is a muscle tube that connects the throat to the stomach and duodenum, which is the upper part of the small intestine.

During direct laryngoscopy, you lie on your back on the examination table. Your doctor will insert a special tube called a laryngoscope into your mouth and throat. This allows your doctor to carefully read the throat and throat. They will then use a laryngoscope to collect a sample of tissue from a polyp.

After any biopsy procedure, a tissue sample will be examined with a microscope to detect any abnormalities in your cells.

Recovery that occurs after a polyp biopsy?

It is normal to feel discomfort after a biopsy, but you must recover within a day or two. Call your doctor right away if you have dizziness, bleeding, or pain in the area where the tissue sample has been removed. These symptoms may indicate that something is wrong.

What is a biopsy?

A biopsy is a sample of colon mucosa tissue for histological examination. Not in all cases it is possible to remove a polyp at colonoscopy, for example, if it is a villous polyp on a broad base, easily traumatized and bleeding. The doctor then plucks a piece of the pathological formation found during colonoscopy and sends it to the laboratory for examination under a microscope. This allows you to quickly and accurately diagnose, including the very early stages of the disease. Based on histopathological findings, the doctor chooses the best treatment tactics in each clinical case.

Glasses with tissue samples are usually stored for possible subsequent examination of a microscopic specimen at another medical facility.

Can polyps recur?

After the polyp is removed, the possibility of its recurrence is minimal. However, the factors that cause the formation of polyps are not eliminated; therefore, in some patients, polyps may form again. Patients who have ever been diagnosed with colon polyps should continue to undergo regular examinations by a coloproctologist. The frequency of colonoscopy is determined in each case individually, taking into account the patient’s risk factors for the transformation of polyps into cancer. After removing large polyps (over 2 cm), multiple (5 or more) and villous polyps of any size, a colonoscopy is necessary every year. In addition, for all patients over 50, we recommend a colonoscopy as part of screening for colorectal cancer, since statistics show that from this age the risk of developing this type of cancer increases significantly. Further screening studies should be repeated in accordance with the recommendations of the attending physician.

Watch the video: Serrated Polyps of the Colon: Ensuring Complete Removal (December 2019).